Global warming is a topic that has received a great deal of attention from around the world because this issue needs to be addressed before it is too late. The climatic changes that are taking place are an alarm for bigger disasters. Needless to say, the main cause for global warming is the accumulation of greenhouse gases that are being emitted in the environment. As there is an increased need to fix this situation, the environmentalists and some other groups of people are working together to work out the ways in which the emission of these gases could be decreased to a minimum so that the earth can be saved and ozone layer can be prevented from further destruction. However, this is not an easy task as there are hundreds and thousands of sources from where these gases are emitted, something of them have not even been identified so far. The strategy that is being implemented here is that the sources of greenhouses gases that contribute the most towards this environmental hazard need to be identified and then appropriate steps should be taken to prevent or decrease their emission.
One of the sources of the greenhouse gases are the vehicles. As we know that as the human being becomes more and more progressive, he contaminates his environment. There are a huge percentage of people worldwide who own a car. Those who don't, they use public transport like buses and vans. Since these vehicles are being run on fuel that contains a great deal of carbon content. When the engine is working, some amount of this fuel is burnt partially and this incomplete combustion produces toxic gases like carbon monoxide, nitric oxide. On the other hand, the complete combustion of the fuel produces carbon dioxide, which is again a greenhouse gas and toxic for the environment.
In this paper we shall discuss the detrimental effects of car pollution on our environment and then later in the paper we shall look at the alternative fuels than the ones that are being used and discuss their efficiency and affordability.
How car pollution effects the environment?
As mentioned earlier, when the engine of the car is functional, there are many different gases as well as other particles that are emitted in the air and that can have extremely negative effects on the environment. The gases that are particularly dangerous because of their contribution towards global warming, the ones that have been labeled as the greenhouse gases are of concern to us. These gases include carbon dioxide along with other hydrocarbons. The other gases that are emitted in the air because of the burning of fuel in the engine of the car include sulfur oxides, soot and other carcinogens that are solid tiny particles. Apart from the emission of these things, some substances are emitted in the air that is responsible for the creation of smog and depletion of the ozone layer. There is also a positive point that needs to be mentioned here. Despite the increase of cars on the roads, the quality of air has been improved over the years. One of the environmental hazards that had detrimental effect on the health of the human beings, lead, has been almost completely eradicated from the air. This is because people have now started using the unleaded gasoline as fuel for their vehicles.
There isn't just one way in which these vehicle emissions have negative effects on the environment. The greenhouse gases that are emitted by the burning fuel are the biggest and most important culprit for causing global warming. Not just the environment and the air, the substance and other particulate matter that is emitted by the burning of vehicle fuel have detrimental effects on the health of the human beings as well. When this matter is emitted, it settles on the soil from where it gets into the food that we consume. Once these particles enter the human body, they tend to cause disorders of the respiratory, immunological, neurological and reproductive systems. Moreover, these particles also find their way into the water supplies and have the same effects as when they enter the human body through food consumption. Furthermore, the gases like sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide are the major contributors of the acid rain. The acid rain changes the pH of the water bodies that can have detrimental effects of the environment that is there in the seas and rivers. The fishes and other water animals are killed and their ecology is disturbed because of this. The old buildings, and even the new ones, that are made up of limestone and other salts that are contain calcium also get affected because of this acid rain.
Now we shall talk about one of the other major concerns of the vehicle pollution and its effects on the environment. As we all know that the earth is surrounded by a layer of oxygen that is called the ozone layer. This layer is very valuable to our mother earth as it provides the human beings protection against the harmful effects of the ultraviolet rays. If it was not for this layer, every other person on this earth would have skin and squamous cell carcinomas as well as many other diseases. However, as the pollution in the air is increasing, the ozone layer is getting depleted. This is because of the reactivity of the emitted substances. The substances that are responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer include bromine and chlorine in high concentrations, halons, CFCs, carbon tetrachloride, methyl bromide and methyl chloroform. The reason why car pollution is held responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer is that the emissions from the vehicles contain some amount of hydrocarbons; however, there are only few substances that contain a great concentration of chlorine or bromine.
Another way in which the emissions from the cars cause pollution is that they contain many different kinds of fluids apart from the just the petrol or diesel that is used as fuel for the car. These include the motor oil, air-conditioning refrigerants, anti-freeze, windshield wiper, brake, hydraulic and transmission fluids. In most of the instances, the named substances have proved to be toxic to humans as well as animals because they have the tendency to pollute the water bodies when they leak from the cars or when they are not disposed in a proper way. It should be noted that when the engine is functioning, these fluids are exposed to heat in the presence of oxygen. Moreover, it has also been established that these fluids have the capacity to pick up the heavy metals when the engine is undergoing wear and tear and other chemical changes. Once they do that, they become even more toxic for the environment.
The environmentalists have been working hard to address their issue and there has been little success in this matter. The cars that were manufactured before the year 1994 used CFC-12 as the coolant. However, this coolant is not being used anymore because of its detrimental effects on the ozone layer. Some of the refrigerants are available that are being used as alternatives with minimal effect on the ozone layer.
The role of atmosphere to keep the earth warm is known as the greenhouse effect. There is a natural layer of atmospheric gases, which along with the clouds, is responsible for the absorption of a portion of the heat that is being produced by the earth and keeps it from going out of the planet. This can keep our planter for warm for the rest of our lives. When certain gases include nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide are produced and emitted in the air beyond a certain level, the heating effect is enhanced. These gases enter the atmosphere by multiple sources, one of which is the cars. The emission of gases and their accumulation are held responsible for the overall increase in the temperature of the world. The metreologists are of the view that if the global warming continues to increase in the upcoming years, then the world will have to face drastic changes in the climate. This means that the patterns of rainfall will also change. It should be noted that in some areas of the world, where agriculture is their main industry, rainfall patterns are of great importance to the people. Moreover, this would also result in the unusual melting of the snow peaked mountains resulting in an increase in sea levels that would overall disturb the ecological system of earth.
Even though the effects on the environment caused because of the car pollution cause tens of hundreds of diseases. The most common ones can be discussed in this paper.
The most common of the diseases that is caused by car as well as any other kind of pollution are the ones related to the respiratory system. According to a survey conducted by BBC, it was reported that air pollution was responsible for…