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Society also ingrains many values and ideas into its populace, for instance, by gender conditioning. Boys are told they should not cry or display feeling while it is okay for a girl to do it. Boys are also expected to be tough and aggressive and told from a very young age that they need to be "strong." The worst insult for a little boy generally is that he is acting like a girl. This fact is observed in almost all societies irrespective of geographical location. Parenthood, marital status and involvement in social circles also influence values and attitudes.
Franken defined motivation as a multifaceted phenomenon. (Franken, 1998) He associated motivation as an internal state of need, desire or want that serves to activate or energize behavior as well as to give direction to behavior. Motivation is also defined as a factor that helps people get energized towards attaining a goal that they set for themselves. Need and desires act as motivators for human beings. They help channel humans towards undertaking a course of action that can help the individual work to possess the desires.
Individuals are unique and perform differently when put under similar conditions. There are different reasons why individuals behave differently. The society in which the individual lives, the location and the social experiences and customs of the region all play an important role in the development of the individual. Nurturing a child through childhood and early adulthood plays an important roll in shaping the social side of an individual and can help the person get adjusted to adulthood. (Gove, 1994) Human beings, in addition to having unique cognitive, mental and social differences (among them), also have biological differences. An individual's traits, talents and intelligence all affect the image that is portrayed to the world. Our inherent differences also help make the very simple act of living also more complex.
Religion, laws and regulation, social relationships like marriage, family and children all impact the way individuals perceive their success in their lifetime. The importance of work is often stated to be important for all workers. And the meaningfulness of the task being executed may help develop a sense of identity in a worker. But family, religion and society also define who we are. Mortality and the meaning of human existence are often discussed both philosophically and realistically. People often use religion to help themselves identify and realize their purpose in life. In turn this also defines their ethics and attitude in general. Failures and misunderstandings in the ethical consideration, the religious beliefs and the family can result in the individuals questioning and feeling a sense of despair creating an environment of discomfort.
Sociologists are of the opinion that emotions and feeling are also motivators and money is not the only factors that helps in the motivation of individuals. People are constantly modifying their values and beliefs based on facts and observations. People experience a locus of control often identified as the "tendency to attribute success and difficulties either to internal factors such as effort or to external factors such as chance." (Gove, 1994) People tend to identify with a "comfort zone" and tend to match their tasks and skills to this. Change in any society is generally gradual; but sometimes, society will identify a change agent and implement transformation in a very short period of time. Human beings are shaped by more than society and culture in which they reside. Understanding why we do what we do is not an easy task that can be dissected and categorized effectively. Variable which may appear discrete and independent by themselves may be interrelated in ways that are difficult to identify unless looked at in a macro situation.
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Franken, R.E. (1998). Human motivation (4th ed.). vrPacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.
Gove, W.R. (1994). Why We Do What We Do: a Biopsychosocial Theory of Human Motivation. Social Forces, 73.
Jackson, K.M., Mannix, E.A., Peterson, R.S., & Trochim, W.M.K. (2003). A Multi-faceted Approach to Process Conflict. Paper presented at the IACM 15th Annual Conference.
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Maslow, a.H., Stephens, D.C., & Heil, G. (1998). Maslow on management. New…[continue]
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One of the foremost psychologists in this area is Adolph Adler. Adler was of the opinion that "… personality is shaped by the child's relationship with his/her parents and by our consciously chosen life goals, rather than by instincts" (Ewen, 1998, p. 1). This view suggests the primary importance of societal and family influences in the creation and development of personality. This view led to cognitive and social-cognitive theories,
Although his theory is not necessarily incompatible with Maslow and Alderfer's ideas, Herzberg places less emphasis on basic needs, and more upon using higher, internal needs to elicit optimal performance from the individual. One common objection to theories of human motivation, of course, is that different types of people appear to be motivated by different things. For example, one teacher may choose his or her position because of job security,
R Harris "believes that parent do not shape their child's personality or character" (Lee, 2003) rather, it is the child's peers who hold more influence on the child. According to Harris, children do not use all the information they have learned from their parents. In general, children behave in the manner which they have learned from people in their social group. According to Haimowitz, family environment does not contribute much to
His overactive super-ego demands rigid acceptance of social conformity, including a set of standards that are applicable to him being a role model to others. He might ask himself the question, " that if he, as a conservative role model, cannot control his physical urges what then would a less "public" and conservative individual do if he or she were exposed to such materials? His response with regard to
Personality Theory Describe and discuss the basic characteristics, tenets and methods of investigation/research for psychodynamic and cognitive perspectives regarding personality psychology, and the benefits/strengths and limitations/weaknesses of each approach. The challenge that the researchers and personality theorists will face is to parsimoniously capture the process-oriented and dynamic nature of personality. Dweck (1996) in an earlier study asserts that "trait theorists have addressed some of the more static, descriptive aspects of personality-how people
Motivation and Employee Engagement Motivation and Employment Engagement Relationship between Motivation of Followers and Motivation Theories McClelland's needs Based theory identifies three distinct needs and explains how these needs may be able to motivate employees to improved performance at the workplace. The three needs consist of the need for achievement, the need for power, and the need for affiliation. Employees possess each of these needs at varying levels depending on their personality and
Motivation Organizational Behavior Analysis: Motivation Organizational Behavior is a multi-disciplinary field that studies human behaviors in an organizational setting or how individuals interface with an organization or group of people. This field has many implications for business and human resources since in can help facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. Management can use insights gained through the study of this field to try to optimize different components of organizational behavior such as