Part 3 -- Theory, References- Phonics teaches English by learning to connect the sounds of the spoken language with letters or groups of letters, then blending those sounds to form words. New words are mastered by forming approximate pronunciations of sounds, and then extrapolating to newer words. English has absorbed so many other languages that the word does not always sound the same way it looks, so patterns are taught -- short vowels, long vowels, shwa- sounds, closed and open syllables, dipthongs and dipgraphs. Sight words are a development from phonics, in which the picture of the object or activity (noun or verb) becomes dually associated with sound and meaning (Sensenbaugh, 1996).
The panel found that phonics are an effective way to teach reading in K-6, or when students have difficulty reading at higher levels. However, it is also important that teachers understand phonics is only one step of a total reading program, and that a significant amount of time and energy must also be spent on comprehension and synthesis (NRPR, 8-14).
Part 4 -- Appendix -- as a sample lesson on helping students value diversity we might utilize a book called Uncle Jed's Barbershop (Forgran; Mitchell, 1998).
Book Summary: Uncle Jed is a 79-year-old African-American barber who always dreams of having his own barbershop. He travels to many countries cutting people's hair and saving as much money as possible. In his travels, Uncle Jed faces many obstacles, but with determination and hard work, he finally achieves his goal.
Lesson Goal: To help students value human diversity and positively relate to others.
Prereading Activities: Preload students with questions, information about a barber. Tell them this book takes place 100 years in the past and that transporation and cities were much different. As them to listen closely and try to identify the differences.
During Reading: Can either be read aloud, popcorn style, or individually. Before revealing the final solution to the plot (Whether Jed saved enough money to open his barbershop), use the I SOLVE strategy to predict potential ideas for Uncle Jed to save and earn money.
1. How old do you think the little girl, Sara, is when this story begins?
2. Why did Uncle Jed need to travel?
3. What was Uncle Jed's dream?
4. Why didn't people believe Uncle Jed could save enough money for the trip?
5. What do you think the word segregation means?
6. How do you think Sara Jean's parents felt when they had to wait for the doctor to treat all the white patient's first?
7. How did it make Uncle Jed feel to help Sara Jean get the operation?
8. How do you think Uncle Jed felt when he heard the bank lost all his money?
I SOLVE Strategy
I: IDENTIFY the problem presented in the book (Uncle Jed did not have enough money to open up his own barbershop).
S: SOLUTIONS to the problem? a) Book solution, b) Uncle Jed could give up? C) New solutions.
O: OBSTACLES to the solutions? a) Book solution, B) if Uncle Jed gave up, he'd never make his dream come true. C) Other.
L: LOOK at the solutions and choose one: What could help Uncle Jed achieve his goal?
V: VALIDATE the solution by trying it. Role play
E: EVALUATE how the solution worked. Discuss ways it worked, did not work, or could work better.
Extended Learning Activities:
Geography -- Find all the places Uncle Jed visited and describe a bit about each one.
History -- What was life like when Uncle Jed was travelling? Compare and contrast that with life today?
Science -- Why do people need to cut their hair? Discuss sanitation. Also travel and technology. What changes in Uncle Jed at 79 might affect his dream? (Mitchell, 1998)
Math - How much did Uncle Jed need? What are some savings plans that could help?
Psychology -- Discuss perceptions and cultural attitudes. Discuss ageist attitudes.
Philosophy -- Discuss morality and ethics of segregation, especially in medicine. Give some current examples and ask students to reflect.
WORKS CITED and CONSULTED
Anderson, H. (2000). Teaching Through Texts. Routledge.
Coulson, a. (2008). "Delivering Education." Hoover Institution Review. Cited in: