1994 And 1998 Floods Natural Research Proposal

Length: 20 pages Sources: 40 Subject: Animals Type: Research Proposal Paper: #72011730 Related Topics: Hydraulic Fracturing, Natural Resource, Natural Disasters, As I Lay Dying
Excerpt from Research Proposal :

Significance of the study

This study carries significant value for Albany State policymakers since this study will thoroughly cover the concept of creating and maintain an effective flood protection system and disaster recovery plan.


The findings of this study can expand the knowledge about effective flood responses.


It can provide valuable data for the policy makers to make effective decisions to regulate and set higher standards where deemed necessary.


This study and its findings will become an addition to and update of existing research on natural disaster response plan.

Chapter 2: Literature of Review

What are floods?

Floods are natural disasters that occur due to a rise in the water levels that submerge, disrupt normal human activities and operations (Schneid, 2007). It is important to note that floods are a natural disaster and that their severity is determined by the water levels and the force and content that the water carries along (Geological Abstracts, 2008). Floods are considered the most destructive of all natural disasters because they are the most common.

Analysis of Flint River Basin

The Coastal plain region has historically been covered by a large majority of pine trees. Due to the constant degradation of the environment through seeking trees for timber and other products, the land has been left bear and very prone to natural disasters and irregular weather patterns. Increased amounts of precipitation and rains leads to the formation of storms that equally affect neighboring regions like the Flint River. All individuals in the area, including Albany State University, are affected by these.

Of particular interest in this paper is the Flint River basin. This land is an area that is clearly marked and demarcated by the government as a river basin land and is selectively offered for development. Before the 1994 flood disaster, the land acquisition in the county was not well controlled. This led to the haphazard development of both residential and infrastructural amenities on the Flint River Basin (Leavesley, 2007). A good example is Albany State University, which was founded in 1903 on the banks of a know risk and hazard, the Flint River.

The major attractive aspect was to sell the land at very attractive rates. Fifty acres of land, which later became Albany State College, was purchased for less than $2,600.00. The resultant scenario was the mushrooming of development projects where social amenities and residential points were quickly built and the corresponding developments accomplished on the acquired land. Attempts to caution residents of the looming dangers in a foreseeable flood did not make sense, only until the 1998 flooding (Coppola, 2007).

Effects of floods

Floods mainly have an effect on the social, health, economic and the environmental imbalance. The effects are mostly felt immediately as the water levels rise beyond a certain point and become quite a nuisance to the survival and the well being of creature within the population.

From a social perspective, floods cause a break in the social patterns and cycles. Per OECD (2009) in his study on Japanese scenarios explains that the introduction of excess water into the environment creates a dispersed distribution population. With a dispersed distribution the patterns and the commonality of a population is lost and the individuals lack proper identity. Albany, Ga. was not different, but Albany State University was different. There are traces of multicultural interference and distortion caused by the 1994 and 1998 Floods in Albany, but there is no available data for ASU (Wrobel & Wrobel, 2009).

Economically the GDP of the state reduces significantly due to immediate and unexpected change in expenditure and budgets. Economic analysts in the years of the flood depicted that the GDP of the average citizens dropped by 5.72% in the year 1994. This is a clear indication of the impact that the effects would have on the government as well as domestic economy throughout the country.

In health aspects, the Floods became the medium for the transfer of water-borne agents of diseases. The likely diseases are bilharzias, flu, chronic chest congestion, and epidemics such as cholera and dysentery (Mitchell, 2009). The health implications have a serious long-term effect on victims who...


For a majority of those caught up in the floods, the high levels of malaria and typhoid, creates an ideal environment for the falling out and dying off of individuals in such areas. Wohl (2000) makes a medical view of the situation and advocates for complete evacuation from the flood zones and its environs once the area is identified as a disaster hit region. The most prudent action during such emergencies is the prevention of disease causing agents.

Flooding responses

Responses as earlier discussed in the problem statement are best attacked by categorizing into three distinct categories: the immediate response, the short-term response actions and the corresponding long-term actions.

The immediate response covers the provisions of food and water to victims, evacuation and resettlement and offering emergency aid to injured and incapacitated victims (Michner, 2002). Additionally, all the relevant aid that is offered to avert further loss in the event of a natural disaster will be classified as immediate aid that is offered to individuals who are caught up in the disaster (Coppola, 2007). The overall goal is to avert any possible escalation of a disaster.

Case scenarios from studies by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (2001) depict that in floods, other related risks such as electrocution and drownings are higher and if immediate aid is not offered, the victims would end up suffering double tragedy.

Short-term response incorporates the involvement of social groups, NGO's, government bodies in providing temporary shelter and the immediate disinfection of floods hit areas to mitigate the risks of diseases (Conrad, 2008). Care must be taken to record water levels and the major affected areas in the flood. This data aids in the long-term planning and development of more comprehensive systems for the checking and detection of floods.

Long-term responses are critical, especially in flood disasters.

As per Wrobel & Wrobel (2009), long-term responses are critical especially in flood disasters. The response actions are all geared at recovery and rebuilding of the destroyed regions in the community. These long-term responses also aid in preparations for any such events. Long-term responses are specifically in the planning and policy making for flood analysis and detection, policy also in land use and the demarcation of the river basin regions, building mitigation avenues such as dykes and improvement of the drainage system.

According to the USGS, there is need for the adherence to the flood disaster best practices. The best practices as per American Society of Health-System Pharmacy, (2008) gives guidelines for the prevention of sewer mess within the society and the observance of the main mitigation practices to avert looming danger. Cooley & Vold (2007) suggest that for people in flood prone zones should accept to register for flood insurance which is readily available in the U.S. market.

The Flint River has in the recent past enjoyed the benefit of proper and well forecasted plans. The river basin has been calibrated ever since 2005 through joint efforts with the incumbent community and supporting authorities such as the Dougherty County.

The Albany flood was such as disaster, that it made then president Bill Clinton to declare the Albany region as a disaster region. This led to the entrance of heavy rescue and support missions to the area, but their work was hampered by the opposition from the accessibility to the area as shown by Sene (2008). Other challenges include a lack of ample budgetary allocation for such disasters, the overstretched services of emergency services like ambulances and health workers plus an initial opposition by residents who defied evacuation orders, Coppola (2007).

Dougherty County is very challenged by the sudden monetary requirements from such disasters. This leads to the borrowing of funds and the topping up of such deficits through the use of donations and contributions from the society and especially from firms.

According to Burnett (2008) the emergency services in the 1994 disaster had their carrying capacity being overstretched due to the rising case of illnesses and injury that resulted from the floods. Additional backup from police and other paramedic services had to come in and helping attending to victims while widening the areas of rescue coverage.

Mitchell (2009) explains the need for alternative access point and means in getting to citizen in the inland regions. The floods cut out road transport and walking throughout the flooded water poses a threat to the individual. In a disaster recovery venture the terrain is very vital in tackling rescue and recovery tasks. At times rescue operators met serious opposition from the residents due to their perceived feeling that the waters will soon get to lower levels. Such individuals…

Sources Used in Documents:

Geodesign barriers

A water reservoir, as the name suggests, is normally used to store extra water for later use. The reservoirs can serve as a handy diversion when floods occur as the extra water can be diverted to them through the use of channels or pumps (Wilson and Wilson, 2005). The walls of reservoirs are usually made of concrete and are mostly man-made. The main idea behind the reservoirs is that they serve as a backup vessel for access water during flood seasons.

Dams again can serve the purpose of retaining or containing access water. Dams are usually arch shaped (see picture below) and are made of

Cite this Document:

"1994 And 1998 Floods Natural" (2010, October 15) Retrieved July 3, 2022, from

"1994 And 1998 Floods Natural" 15 October 2010. Web.3 July. 2022. <

"1994 And 1998 Floods Natural", 15 October 2010, Accessed.3 July. 2022,

Related Documents
Pennsylvania's Natural Resources the State
Words: 2464 Length: 7 Pages Topic: Energy Paper #: 55499062

8 billion, and primary metal manufactures, $1.4 billion (Exports pp). Together, these five manufactured product categories accounted for 61% of the state's total exports of goods in for that year (Exports pp). In dollar terms, the leading manufactured export growth category is transportation equipment, rising $294 million between 1999 to 2003, while others included miscellaneous manufactures, up $248 million, processed foods, up $192 million, and primary metal manufactures, up $171 million

China's Three Gorges Dam and
Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Energy Paper #: 75154659

Both the countries have a huge population and increasing energy demands to propel the growth at the current rate. While the Yangtze river project was mainly undertaken to serve the energy needs of the rapidly growing eastern cities of Shangai and central Chinese states, the Narmada river project's main focus was to supply water for the irrigation demands of the vast agricultural regions of the Gujarat and Maharashtra and

Censorship in Music
Words: 12976 Length: 36 Pages Topic: Music Paper #: 66604850

Censorship in Music Censorship Under the Guise of Protecting the Children Rock and Roll Culture Hip Hop Culture Is Censorship in Music Viable and Does it Make a Difference? There have been many attempts by society control music. Governmental statutes, agency regulations, business controls and parents have all tried to censor the music. Sometimes they have succeeded and sometimes they have not. The examination of various aspects of rock and rap music censorship involves general

Direct to Consumer Advertising History of Drug
Words: 16271 Length: 59 Pages Topic: Business - Advertising Paper #: 71118969

Direct to Consumer Advertising HISTORY OF DRUG ADVERTISING THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENOMENON CREATING DEMAND DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WOLF IN SHEEP'S CLOTHING CAUSE OF DEATH PROFIT UTILIZATION, PRICING, AND DEMOGRAPHICS LEGISLATION, POLITICS AND PATENTS LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit

Adolescent Obesity in Saudi Arabia
Words: 3430 Length: 8 Pages Topic: Healthcare Paper #: 52239278

There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors

Management and Decision Sciences From
Words: 25680 Length: 90 Pages Topic: Business - Management Paper #: 55501983

76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The