Culture and Health Care |
A Review of Culture on Health Disparities, Health Related Practices and Healthcare Outcomes
The social status of an individual refers to the rank one holds within a group or community; and requires conformance to such rights, lifestyle, and duties as understood by prestige and social hierarchy (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016). Status may be attained or ascribed in different ways. One, for instance may inherit such status at birth as it happens in monarchies and Kingships. This kind of status climb has nothing to do with one's innate abilities or skills. Ascribed status is based on such factors as age, family relations, lineage, birth, sex, and similar considerations while acquired status is earned. It may be based on such factors as the level of education, marital status, occupation and similar factors that come with accomplishment of certain feats that required some practical effort.
Status is about scale stratification. The notion of high position in society is based on the ability of one to control other people's lives in some way. Such control may be by law, order or by influence. Relative status is a strong influence on people's behavior towards each other. Generally, status varies with social context. For example, one's position within the family often determines the perception by others in the wider community. Occupational consideration is also an important factor that influences the perception of status. In industrial economies, such factors as the ability to consume certain categories of goods, a respected occupation, attire, physical appearance, one's manners and general etiquette have increasingly become a yardstick for determining status; a departure from the traditional culture, being pinned on lineage. Occupation in the industrial society is based on a continuum. There is no stiff or rigid hierarchy. Status is closely linked with morality and etiquette and in most modern societies today, has become a function of wealth (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016).
In Africa, in many societies, a host of factors including their place of origin and family relations determined the social status of an individual. For example, if one was born in a wealthy family or one that had close friendly links with an influential, powerful or rich family, such a person's social status would be higher than others who belonged to lesser families. The converse was also true if one was born into a poor family.
Furthermore, being a male carries a superior status to that of a female. Such perceptions still hold to a certain extent but they are high breeds of a mix with western influences such as western education and perception of status. Therefore, in addition to considering aspects such as...
Indeed, accomplishments are also a strong indication in the new considerations.
Cultural Habits and Health
African culture is passed from one generation to the next. It is important to note that Africa is not one large entity with identical cultures and people. The cultural content in the continent is diverse; just as its people, societies, and identities. Nevertheless, the majority of African cultures believed in the existence of a supreme being. They believed that such (supernatural) a being created humans and endowed them with resources such as land and rivers, animals and similar abundance that was critical for survival. The Supreme Being is known by different names in different communities. The commonality is that the Supreme Being is the creator of the universe. He is the provider and can cause life and death. African cultures, like cultures from many other regions of the world have also been subject to western influences. Thus, the belief in the existence in a single supreme being is one of the influences of such interaction and is called God.
People's cultural practices and habits, both affect not only their health but also other aspects of life. These aspects include their social relationships, their contribution to the health of society, and its functioning. Their immediate social environment affects humans. Different communities and races have unique cultural inclinations and beliefs when it comes to disease and health matters. These unique ways of approaching social and cultural aspects of life also influence the way people view, respond to and manage health matters that confront them (Asu, Gever & Joshua, 2013).
Traditional cultural practices and values are still at the heart of many African societies. Analysis of African culture often presents two versions. The style of naming children is one of the most conspicuous and resilient symbols of African culture. Others that are still strongly laced with African tradition and culture include marriage and initiation ceremonies. According to Asu Gever &Joshua (2013), attitude towards health and community practices influence the way people make use of healthcare facilities.
Factors that influence how people receive healthcare services in Africa vary from community to community and country to country. Consequently, they yield varying results and the spread of different types of diseases. Some of the observable factors include
Religious beliefs: moral issues, religious practices, and beliefs affect health significantly. Commonly, in cases where a victim suffers from a serious illness, it is attributed to the wrath of gods. Indeed, it is not uncommon to hear of the anger of ancestral spirits. African religion incorporates ancestral spirits as a central element in its practice. These spirits are closely knit with people's lives. Many African communities hold that all living things are harmoniously connected with the spirits and the gods. In that relationship, there is ascribed special force that each of them generates.
When there is perfect harmony with the environment; spirits and the gods, a state of peace is experienced. These are staunch beliefs held by African Traditional Religion adherents. It is also a belief that is shared among Muslims and Christians alike. Misfortune and even ill-health, that defies modern medicine are believed to be spiritual forces controlled by sorcerers, wizards and witches; or simply as manifestations of the ancestors' wrath on the society.
Indeed, according to African belief, one does not simply just fall…
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Therefore, I would tell the patient that their symptoms should not be considered in isolation of their whole person. Websites that address symptoms only are not taking into account the wealth of factors that can influence the diagnosis of a specific disease. At the same time, patients have the right to know about alternative solutions other than those provided or suggested by the physician or health care organization. Sometimes insurance
(Worcestershire Diabetes: a New model of care Stakeholder event, 2007) The continuum of care for the diabetic patient is shown in the following illustration labeled Figure 1. Diabetes: Continuum of Care Source: Worcestershire Diabetes: a New model of care Stakeholder event (2007) The continuum of care for diabetes begins at the moment that the individual is found to have diabetes and continues across the individual's health care providers and across the varying stages
" (AAFP, nd) The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAFP, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAFP,
Migrant Health Problem Presently, access to social and health services for most migrants is determined by their legal status. Undocumented migrants have least possible access to health services. Legal status is one of the preconditions for ability involved in receiving adequate care. Further, the availability, acceptability, quality and accessibility of such services is dependent on different influences such as cultural, social, linguistic, structural, gender, geographical and financial factors. From this,
Health Behavior The "Theories At A Glance" manual discussed a variety of healthy behaviors. Select two theories that can be used to explain why people behave the way they do. Discuss the basic premise and constructs of the theories you choose. Cite two examples of how each theory could be used to explain a health behavior. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) The relationship that exists between behavior and attitudes, beliefs and intention
Background The individual is a 26 year-old female living in Bethesda, Maryland. For the purposes of retaining anonymity and privacy, only the person’s initials (MA) will be used to describe her responses to interview questions related to cultural affiliations, values, kinship, religion, and all other elements relevant to the comprehensive cultural assessment. The Andrews & Boyle (2012) cultural assessment framework is used to guide interview questions and analyze responses. Furthermore, MA’s