Functionalism is. What advantage does it have over the Identity Theory?
Functionalism imparts the theoretical underpinnings of much work in cognitive science and is one of the chief theoretical developments of Twentieth Century analytic philosophy. To solve psyche problem, functionalism is presented as one of the main schemes. Following are the customary questions that are asked to solve psyche problem: what makes a mental state mental? Or what is the eventual nature of the mental? To be more particular, what makes a thought? Or what do thoughts have in common in virtue of which they are thoughts? What makes a pain? (Functionalism) Through their informal roles, functionalism recognizes mental states and processes; and neural states and processes hold functional roles. (The Identity Theory of Mind)
As per functionalism, informal relations among mental states sensory inputs and behavioral outputs comprise mental states. Three separate sources of functionalism are as follows. Putnam and Fodor used an empirical computational theory of the mind to express mental states. Armstrong and Lewis used Smart's 'topic neutral' analyses to achieve a functionalist analysis of mental concepts. A form of functionalism as a theory of meaning is derived from the Wittgenstein's idea of meaning as use; Sellars and later Harman further developed this. Functionalism remains to be an energetic and flowing point-of-view. In current years, constructive developments took place that includes improved scenarios for theoretical functionalism and the expression of the teleological point-of-view. (Functionalism) It is a widespread belief that 'functionalism' take over from the identity theory. Holism is a great benefit of functionalism over the early identity theory. In fact, researchers use functionalism as a way to the identity theory. (The Identity Theory of Mind)
2. What is Folk Psychology and in what way is it like a scientific theory?
Folk psychology refers to the concept of mind as assumed by untrained people. Current conversation of folk psychology in philosophy and cognitive science has concentrated hugely on the segment of folk psychology that directs the forecast and clarification of actions, even though the extent of folk psychology is huge. The fundamental role folk psychology plays in our everyday lives forces a large quantity of the attention in this segment of folk psychology. In our lives, folk psychological forecast and clarification are in abundance. Routine tasks, like attempting to understand what your peers think about your work, what the baby needs, and what your spouse will do if you turn up home late, is what we employ folk psychology to. (Folk Psychology)
We assign people with such things as 'beliefs', 'desires', etc. through folk psychology. Our ability to forecast and clarify the behavior of others and ourselves is based on folk psychology. It can be seen to be a theory of human cognition if it is being used to forecast and clarify behavior. (Is Folk Psychology a Theory?) In order to think that many ideas are inborn, folk psychology is also concerned in loftier activities like trying to pick up Descartes' reasons. Jerry Fodor, based on the role of folk psychology in our lives, has commented that if folk psychology should become gravely wrong, it would be the maximum intellectual disaster in the history of our species. (Folk Psychology)
Though folk psychology plays a vital role in our ability to forecast and clarify the behavior of others and ourselves the position and environment of folk psychology remains contentious. (Folk Psychology as a Theory) Folk psychologies have a strong theoretical base. It is used in a similar way for more than a few thousand years. Unlike other sciences, it has not developed well. (Is Folk Psychology a Theory?) According to many philosophers and cognitive scientists, a theory of mind is based on our everyday or 'folk' understanding of mental states. (Folk Psychology as a Theory) Folk Psychology is a theory because, it is descriptive, prophetic, and that it has laws. These laws are comparable to that in science; hence X hopes that Y is structurally equivalent to X have a length Y. This, at least for Church-land is the clearest reason for thinking it to be a theory. (Is Folk Psychology a Theory?)
3. Explain how Ontological Dualism is vulnerable to the Problem of Interaction.
The philosophy of the mind, dualism is considered as a combination of beliefs which start with the assertion that the mental and the physical aspects have an inherently different basic nature. It is in contrast to other different types of monism, which also includes materialsim and phenomenalism. Ontological dualism regards dual commitments in relation to the nature of existence as in comparison to mind and matter. Irrespective of whether ontological dualism is true or not, one would like to inquire about how the mind interacts with the material and how and to what extent it is problematic. The types of dualism in which mind can causually influence matter have now come under serious attack from various arenas, particularly with the beginning of the 20th century. People have doubts that how could something which is totally immaterial, influence something which is fully material. And this is the fundamental problem. (Dualism (philosophy of mind))
How is it possible that the mind and body engage in interaction in and in realizing it? This puzzle has led to the basic 'problem of interaction', which is an important philosophical question which has been dismissed for generations having unanswerable questions like how could thoughts result in actions or how could unconscious fantasies lead to psychosomatic illnesses like ulcers, asthma and colitis. How could thoughts influence particles of matter and how could material influence thoughts, inclusive of the thoughts which lead to knowing from sensation. We are thus left thinking not only regarding how we understand something for sure but also how we have certain experiences at all, particularly the experience of other minds. How could dual types of fundamental substances which are so defined that they do not have anything in common "then have causal relationships in the having of experience and the willing of action?" (The Mind-Body problem) Ontological Dualism is vulnerable to problem of interaction in that it is not clear as to where the interaction would take its place. The second problem is in realtion to the interaction itself -- regarding how does the interaction would take place. But philosophers have certain things to say regarding the matter, since the very idea of a mechanism, which provides the explanation regarding the link between the mental and the physical, would be very strange, at the maximum. (Dualism (philosophy of mind)) Every effort to solve the mind-body dichotomy and the problem of interaction would lead to some more dangerous problems. (The Mind-Body problem)
4. What is the Chinese Room Argument and what is it meant to show?
The Chinese Room argument is an argument in opposition to the likelihood of true artificial intelligence and is formulated by John Searle. (Chinese Room Argument) The Chinese room argument can be explained as follows: Let us assume that we have built a computer many years from now and the computer acts as if it comprehends Chinese. It can be seen as follows: the computer receives Chinese symbols as input, check with a large research table, and then creates other Chinese symbols as output. If this computer succeeds the Turing Test by credibly carrying out this task, then, it can prove to a human Chinese speaker that it is a Chinese speaker. Chinese speaker is convinced that he or she is talking to another Chinese speaker as all the questions the human inquires are answered suitably. Then the strong AI proponents can wrap up that the computer understands Chinese, just as the person does. (Chinese room -An argument forwarded by John Searle)
The argument focuses on a thought experiment in which someone who knows only English is seated alone in a room following English instructions for operating strings of Chinese characters, such that to those outside the room it appears as if someone in the room grasps Chinese. The purpose of the argument is to show that while duly programmed computers may appear to converse in natural language, they are not able to understand language, even in theory. According to Searle, the thought experiment emphasizes the fact that computers simply use syntactic rules to operate symbol strings, but have no understanding of meaning or semantics. For the proponents of Artificial Intelligence, Searle's argument is a straight test; and the argument also has broad repercussions for functionalist and computational theories of meaning and of mind. Hence, this argument received many grave responses. We can conclude that in cognitive science the Chinese Room argument has possibly been the most extensively talked about philosophical argument to appear in the past 25 years. (Chinese Room Argument)
5. What does Leibniz's Law state and what is its significance to the Identity
The identity of indiscernibles, or Leibniz's Law is first devised by German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and is an ontological principle. (Leibniz's Law) This principle, when used with the case of experiences and…