Annotated Bibliography Assignment
Hivner, E. A., Hoke, A. M., Francis, E. B., Hwang, G. W. & Kraschnewski, J. L. (2019). Training Teachers to Implement Physical Activity: Applying Social Cognitive Theory. Health Educational Journal, 78(4), 464-475.
The authors use the social cognitive theory to gauge the impact of physical training on teachers. According to the authors, school happens to be an effective setting where students can engage in physical activity. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program is largely encouraged in schools so as to promote physical activity. Hivner et al. argue that strategies such as classroom-based physical activity can be incorporated in schools so as to increase physical activity. For instance, the authors suggest the inclusion of short fitness exercises during class lessons. The said exercises can be done during different lessons throughout the day, and thus contribute to achievement of the recommended exercise time of sixty minutes per day. From the study, the authors found that inclusion of physical activities in classroom is important in leaning owing to the fact that it increases time-on-task, mathematic scores, and cognitive functioning among students. Therefore, even though physical activities reduces academic instruction time, it would be prudent to include them in classroom given that they help improve learning outcomes. Hivner et al. point out that teachers lack skills, knowledge, classroom space, and time to implement physical activity in classroom. Therefore, teachers should be trained on Physical activity so as to address the said barriers. The said training should be guided by theories such as social cognitive theory to ensure that training is effective. The social cognitive theory was used to determine the teachers beliefs. After training, the authors observed that knowledge and self-efficacy with regard to physical activity increased. As a result, knowledge in physical activity and improved self-efficacy increased the teachers confidence to implement physical activity in the classroom setting.
Results from this article have further reinforced my belief that students learn best if physical activity is incorporated in classroom learning since it increases their time-on-task, mathematic scores, and cognitive functioning - thus improving learning outcomes. An effective teacher will include physical activities in classroom sessions so as to help students improve their performance. Teachers can achieve this if they actively engage their students in physical activity during learning. The article will come in handy as I seek to advance the argument that the relevance of motivating and encouraging teachers to include physical activity in classroom cannot be overstated. This could be achieved through training to improve teacher confidence. Such training can include techniques of classroom management such as the use of cues. In addition, training can address various constructs such as environmental, social, and personal constructs, so as to deal with students with diverse needs and exceptionalities.
Khilmiyah, A. & Wiroyo, G. (2021). Emotional and Social Intelligence Assessment Model for Student Character. International Journal of Education Management. 35(4), 789-802.
Khilmiyahs and Wiroyos journal on Emotional Intelligence Assessment Model for Student Character uses the social and emotional intelligence to determine functional outcomes. The authors argue that being successful in life not only requires intelligence, but also emotional and social intelligence. From their study, the authors assessed emotional and social intelligence and found that education achievement is greatly enhanced when students are emotionally and socially intelligent. In addition, emotional intelligence improves teaching given it fosters trust and mitigates stress. Emotional intelligence also improves job satisfaction and performance. The authors conducted a research incorporating 4th grade students aged 10-12 years from elementary schools using PKES model. The first assessment involved emotional intelligence which assessed cognitive aspects, affective aspects, and psychomotor aspects. The assessment model on cognitive aspects was used to determine the students moral reasoning about social and emotional intelligence. The affective assessment model was used to determine a persons sense of spirituality and feelings. The psychomotor assessment model was used to identify performance based on students behavior. The second model involved the social intelligence assessment which consisted of affective social intelligence and cognitive social intelligence. Results from the emotional intelligence assessment revealed that students have low abilities and require guidance on some fronts. On the other hand, assessment from social intelligence showed that students had good abilities, but they still require guidance for maintenance.
This article will support my final paper given that it has illuminated the fact that students learn best if their emotional and social intelligence is maintained. An effective teacher will guide his or her students through school learning, counseling, and habituation. A teacher can operate the emotional and social intelligence model to help measure psychomotor, affective, and cognitive functions in students. Teachers require guidance on social and emotional intelligence so as to help them assess the character of students. To deal with…improve their understanding and interest in education. Incorporation of technological tools in schools creates a cognitive environment of learning whereby students transfer the skills that they have learnt from gaming to classroom learning. I will further argue that students should also be motivated during game-based learning so as to help the said students remain focused and dedicated to the educational activity. Teachers can effectively manage their classrooms by creating a learning environment that increases the students perception in class. In addition, teachers can help increase efficiency in learning by using game-based learning to awaken learner interest and perception of the education process as an enjoyable and interesting activity/undertaking.
NCSL. Social and Emotional Learning
The article defines social and emotional learning as behaviors, attitudes, and skills that affect the success of a student in life and school. Social and emotional learning is based on five competencies which have been set by the Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL) and which include: responsible decision-making, relationship skills, social awareness, self-management, and self-awareness. The said skills are learnt in various places including; schools, pre-schools, and home. Different states define social and emotional learning differently based on how, where, when, and what it works for in classroom setting. For instance, some states set legislative trends which are inclusive of; pilot programs, professional development or training around social and emotional learning to improve social and emotional learning. Further, states set different standards for social and emotional learning for preschools and elementary schools. For instance, a state like New York has set SEL standards for preschool by providing benchmarks for K-12. Social and emotional learning skills can also be learnt in afterschool programs, which contributes to career readiness and increased employability skills. The authors found that youth and children who attend the said programs benefit from increased achievement and attendance, reduction in student discipline programs, positive social behaviors, and improved self-perception.
Based on this source, I will be able to demonstrate that students learn best if their behaviors, attitudes, and skills are functional. Thus, an effective teacher will implement various state legislations, state standards, and afterschool programs to support social and emotional learning among students. In addition, I will indicate that technological tools such as websites can be used as resources for SEL. Further, different states can motivate teachers to support social and emotional learning by…
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