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Policy reforms split movement coalitions, and fracture and demobilize movements. Because participating groups enter social movements with a range of goals, it is not surprising that they would view acceptable outcomes differently. Coalition dynamics are inherently unstable, as participants are constantly aware of the changing viability and value of particular alliances. In liberal polities, where political institutions are relatively permeable, coalitions are particularly fluid. A very recent example illustrates this point. Whereas laboratory research on the human genome rarely gets much public attention or understanding, periodic decision windows offer an invitation for concerned groups to weigh in. The decision about whether to fund research on human stem cell lines revisits, and reconfigures, old coalitions from the abortion debate. Research scientists, absent en bloc from the abortion debate, weighed in heavily on the question of stem cell research, mobilizing in their behalf, victims of a range of diseases that might be treated with new scientific discoveries. Some portion of the anti-abortion movement, seeing research on discarded embryonic cells (or embryonic cell lines created to be research material) as disrespectful for life, threatened to mobilize if such research were legitimated (Meyer, 2003).
According to Meyer (2003), the following is true of the U.S. economy and social movements.. which clearly shows his views "Changes in policy, particularly in the composition of policy monopoly, means the terrain on which social movements mobilize is constantly shifting. Opportunities for inclusion always threaten to undermine the urgency of particular claims or the perceived necessity of extra institutional mobilization to make them. Government does not have to satisfy even the largest part of a movement coalition to make subsequent social mobilization much more difficult. For elected officials, understanding this reality means the constant search for equilibrium points on policy to stabilize policy monopolies and to palliate political constituency, giving enough to quell disturbances, but not so much as to generate disruption from the other side. For activists, understanding this interaction means making hard calculations about the costs, as well as the benefits, of concessions on matters of policy and political conclusion. Realizing that the prospects for continued mobilization are limited, in no small part due to the dynamics of coalition politics, should help in considering the trade-offs inherent in cultivating institutionally oriented allies, recognizing better deals, and negotiating them." By having this to occur, some of the following will happen or actual stabilized.
Stabilization and Growth. Perhaps most importantly, the federal government guides the overall pace of economic activity, attempting to maintain steady growth, high levels of employment, and price stability. By adjusting spending and tax rates (fiscal policy) or managing the money supply and controlling the use of credit (monetary policy), it can slow down or speed up the economy's rate of growth -- in the process, affecting the level of prices and employment (U.S. Economy).
Regulation and Control. The U.S. federal government regulates private enterprise in numerous ways. Regulation falls into two general categories. Economic regulation seeks, either directly or indirectly, to control prices. Traditionally, the government has sought to prevent monopolies such as electric utilities from raising prices beyond the level that would ensure them reasonable profits. At times, the government has extended economic control to other kinds of industries as well. In the years following the Great Depression, it devised a complex system to stabilize prices for agricultural goods, which tend to fluctuate wildly in response to rapidly changing supply and demand. A number of other industries -- trucking and, later, airlines -- successfully sought regulation themselves to limit what they considered harmful price-cutting (U.S. Economy).
Direct Services. Each level of government provides many direct services. The federal government, for example, is responsible for national defense, backs research that often leads to the development of new products, conducts space exploration, and runs numerous programs designed to help workers develop workplace skills and find jobs. Government spending has a significant effect on local and regional economies -- and even on the overall pace of economic activity (U.S. Economy).
As a rhetorical structure can be used for the American public policy and economy, other countries can benefit from having one as well. It must expedite socio economic reforms and take steps for overcoming institutional and infrastructure. Both physical and social infrastructure is central to sustainable economic growth. In the past few years, the cities in India have undergone tremendous infrastructure, however the situation in not similar in most part of rural India. In the realm of health and education and other human development indicators India's performance has been far from satisfactory. In order to attain the status that currently only a few countries in the world enjoy and to provide a more egalitarian society to its mounting population, they must overcome the following challenges (India Economy).
Sustaining the growth momentum and achieving an annual average growth of 7-8% in the next five years (India Economy).
Simplifying procedures and relaxing entry barriers for business activities (India Economy).
Checking the growth of population; India is the second highest populated country in the world after China. However in terms of density India exceeds China as India's land area is almost half of China's total land. Due to a high population growth, GNI per capita remains very poor. It was only $2,880 in 2003 (world bank figures) (India Economy).
Boosting agricultural growth through diversification and development of agro processing (India Economy).
Expanding industry fast, by at least 10% per year to integrate not only the surplus labour in agriculture but also the unprecedented number of women and teenagers joining the labour force every year. (India Economy).
Developing world-class infrastructure for sustaining growth in all the sectors of the economy (India Economy).
Allowing foreign investment in more areas (India Economy).
Effecting fiscal consolidation and eliminating the revenue deficit through revenue enhancement and expenditure management.
Empowering the population through universal education and health care. India needs to improve its HDI rank, as at 127 it is way below many other developing countries' performance. The UPA government is committed to furtering economic reforms and developing basic infrastructure to improve lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. Government had reduced its controls on foreign trade and investment in some areas and has indicated more liberalization in civil aviation, telecom and insurance sector in the future (India Economy).
Along with that, "within the limit of governmental institutions, we tend to see even less when our rhetoric tends to elbowout what does not appeal to the short-run, efficiency concerns of the middle manager. The median voters -- "the paying customers -- "of PAeducational institutions (students) and professional organizations (members) tend to gain the scope they want. I feel military and knitting examples coming on. That is like directing all one's teaching at the sergeant level and ignoring all issues of strategy or even large-scale tactics. That is like learning how to knit only socks, just because I am now employed as a sock maker"(Farmer, 2002). With that, public policy can change from a rhetorical structure,…[continue]
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