Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Research Paper:
China's One Child Policy
Historically, it is noted that Mao Zedong, once a China president encouraged population growth which saw the population of China almost double during that period of his leadership. This led to overpopulation and the stretching of the social amenities and most importantly the economy. In order to address this challenge, the one -- child policy was introduced in China. This is a policy which forbids any family from having more than one child especially in the urban areas. This was a rule that was established under the watch of Deng Xiaoping in 1979 as a temporary measure to the challenge of overpopulation, albeit more than four decades down the line, the policy still is in enforcement and there are no signs of it beings scrapped from the legislation of China (Matt Rosenberg, 2011).
There were punitive measures that are put in place in order to enforce this directive. Parents with multiple children are denied some benefits and bonuses at their places of work. The wealthy families at time have to pay the government in order to be allowed to have a second child or even more.
There are however, some exemptions to the one-child policy and these couples who are permanently residing at the rural areas, couples that are from the ethnic minorities and parents who are without siblings. There are also a few other cases of exemptions that can be approved like in the case where the first child has some permanent disability or mental illness. There were also recent exemptions in the case of Sichuan earthquake in 2008 where the exemption was announced in Sichuan province to the parents who had lost their children in the earthquake. There are also such exemptions that have been passed for parents who had lost their children (Andrew Jacobs, 2008). There are also exemptions passed for specific administrative regions of Hong Kong as well as Macau, the other lot that are exempt from this rule the foreigners living in China and those Chinese who had children while living outside China as long as these children to no acquire the China citizenship.
The policy was primarily aimed at the first-born children in the year 1978 and was purposed to check against the social degradation, economic problems and environmental challenges that China faced at that time. So far, the officials in China estimate that the policy has helped avoid 300 million births from the time of implementation to the year 2000 (Jeffrey Hays, 2008). This is the equivalent of the population of Europe and as they say, this prevention of the births has helped to a great extent pull China out of poverty and made people's lives better.
The one child policy in China can be noted to have bee spectacularly successful in many aspects as there has never been achieved the rate of decline in fertility rates anywhere else in a predominantly peasant communities as has been realized in china within that short period of time. Despite the setbacks and the delays the policy has had notable results (Botton Beja F, Cornejo Bustamante R, 2011).
Social costs of the policy
The policy is as controversial as the implementation of it. There have been concerns from time immemorial of the negative social implications that the policy may have. This policy has firstly caused a lot of disdain for the female infants since many preferred to have male children who will marry and in the process expand the family. This disdain has led to other fat reaching actions like abortion upon knowing the sex of the infant, neglect after birth, abandonment of newborn baby girls and even infanticides have been noted to occur among the female infants (Gendercide Watch, 2000 ).
This draconian rule has also resulted into an artificial tilting of the ratios of the male to females in China. It is estimated that there are 114 males for every 100 females; this is against the normal trend where there are usually 105 males naturally born fir every population of 100 females. This lopsided ration is exacerbated by the selective female infants abortion that has been occasioned by the one-child policy imposed on the people of China. However this might soon change as the urbanization has made matters better since many urban women do not have a preference for any sex for their yet to be infants and would accommodate any gender (BMJ Publishing Group, 2011).
It is worth noting that the other negative effect of the policy is the unrest that the forced abortion that women without permission are forced to undergo. This was widely experienced widely in 20077 in the southwestern Guangxi Autonomous Region of China, where the supervising officials or the population control officials may have been killed.
This policy has also led to the undue harassment of women who have transcended the boundary and gotten pregnant with a second child. Incase the mother goes in hiding, the relatives are usually arrested and detained at times tortured till the woman surrenders to the officials. This is a system that punishes even the parties that are not directly concerned with the so alleged 'crime' with total disregard for the dependants that they have left at home (Jeffrey Hays, 2008).
This policy is also known to deny the couples that had the desire to have more than one child the opportunity to do so. This was more pronounced in the rural areas where this discontent with the policy raised so much trouble in the rural China that the government had to concede grounds in the rural areas and allow the possibility of having two children.
The low birth rate worked for the economy of China at first, but as at now, the economists are projecting that this may work against the country in the nest five years or so, since the labor supply is now leveling off and is expected to start shrinking in the next five years with the population of the dependent elderly increasing each day. It is feared that by 2040, China might be a country that is growing old having not achieved the full economic growth (New Media Foundation Ltd., 2011).
Unintended consequences of the policy
One of the most outstanding consequences of the program that was not the original intention and was not foreseen is the skewed ratio of men to females in China. China's government predicts that by 2020 there is a possibility that there will be 30 million more men than women. This is due to the preference for males than female children as expounded on above.
The other unintended consequence that came with the implementation of this policy over the years is the possibility of Chinese importing women from outside China to become their mistresses. This will be perpetuated by two major situations. The middle class person will be richer due to the ever growing economy of China and consequently be able to afford abortion safely. This couple with the fact that the ratio of women to men will remain tilted in favor of men over a long period of time, the scarcity of Chinese women will mean men will have no option but to import women as they have to have their companions as well despite the policy.
This policy has worked to the advantage of China just as much as it has reversed a lot of things that the country will have to spend time and money to fight to stabilize back to normal. China has a lesson or two to pick from the neighboring countries and other that have suffered the sex ratio imbalance. One of the specific instances is Korea that was the first country to have the challenge of very high male to female ratio because of the attitude that the country in general had in…[continue]
"China's One Child Policy" (2011, December 05) Retrieved October 22, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/china-one-child-policy-48223
"China's One Child Policy" 05 December 2011. Web.22 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/china-one-child-policy-48223>
"China's One Child Policy", 05 December 2011, Accessed.22 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/china-one-child-policy-48223
China's One Child Policy In the last part of the 20th Century, China, also known as the "sleeping giant," has transformed itself from a predominantly rural, pre-industrialized society to a political and economic challenger. Since the Maoist Revolution of 1949, also known as the Great Patriotic Revolution, China has transformed itself from a feudal system to one of the world's faster growing economies globally. China is huge -- in both geography
Conclusion China's growth rate has slowed dramatically in the last 30 years under the auspice of the One-Child Policy. In fact, at this point it is believed that growth rate is under 2% and that the population replacement rate is at 2.1%, meaning that if these numbers are accurate and hold up, the population of China could actually decrease at some point in the future. Hence, the One-Child Policy could be seen
Ethnographic/Social Considerations Hall (1987) examined the effects of the one child policy from a cultural/anthropological and ethnographic perspective. Her study revealed that such policies unwittingly result in a cultural change in attitudes, beliefs and even behaviors exhibited by children. For example, couples may lean toward the decision that having more than one child "cramps their economic style" and that may lead to the one child being spoiled and the 'babyhood' period
Several factors should be considered before the restrictions are lessened. The relaxation of the policy will only be considered if there is an ample amount of evidence showing that low fertility rates will be sustained. Current studies show that China is transitioning into a small family culture. In 30 pilot counties the policy has been lifted, allowing couples to choose their family size (Poston, 2002, p333-47). However, the National Family
China's One-Child Policy In 1981 the Chinese government implemented the reproductive health program, also known as the one-child policy. This policy was intended to limit the number of births per family in order to stem a growing concern about over-population. This paper takes the position that while the population in China has stabilized, the overall effect of the policy has been detrimental to the nation in the long-run. Chinese officials insist
S. intelligence and military analysts expected, prompting fears that Beijing will attack Taiwan in the next two years, according to Pentagon officials." However, the Taiwanese spokesman, Chang Jung-kung, says this report is inaccurate, noting that the Pentagon does not take into account the latest development between Taiwan and China, who have entered a new phase since Chairman Lien Chan's journey of peace to China in 2005. China also responded by
" Deng's one child policy, moreover, had been one of the most important insurance plans put in place to insure the speed and power of Chinese capitalist development. What this mean was that Deng chose to channel the capital surplus of the Chinese people into factories, railroads, power plants, and the damming the Yangtze River with the massive Three Gorges Dam, rather than into an ever larger Chinese population. Deng's One Child