drugs and violence. It also points out the differences between the effects of various drugs and how different kinds of drugs lead towards different types of violent crimes and aggressive actions. This paper also puts light on the usage of drugs by victims and executors of drugs.
Drugs are considered to be related to violence in a number of ways. Many researches have shown that there is a strong and direct relation between drugs and violence. An increase in the usage of drugs always leads towards an increase in violent behavior. The violent behavior, however, varies from drug to drug. Different drugs have been observed to instigate aggressive behavior in different ways. Upon observation it was indicated that alcohol has different effects on the user when compared to the effects of narcotics. ("Alcohol and other,") Drugs and violence are related to each other in three complex ways. (Goldstein) According to a study these three possible ways are as follows:
This way suggests that some people due to initial intake of some drugs may demonstrate violent behavior. This is because they lose their ability to think rationally and indulge in aggressive behavior such as torture. The drugs usually found to instigate such behavior are alcohol, cocaine marijuana and narcotics etcetera. It has also been observed that male members are also more likely to commit murder and assault.
Economically compulsive way:
This way suggest that some drug users are motivated to commit economically aggressive crimes, such as robbery, so that they can purchase expensive drugs. The most common drugs that cause a person to behave in this way are heroin and cocaine as they are the most expensive drugs. Under this model the users of drugs do not act violently because of impulses instead they act violently because they have to get money in order to buy the drug and to soothe their craving for their drug.
This kind of violence occurs between users and dealers of drugs. The most common example of systematic violence is rivalry between different drug dealers over territory disputes, murders and assaults committed between drug dealers in order to gain a competitive edge and strict and extreme punishments due to an inability to pay debts etcetera. This kind of violence is very dangerous and some studies have indicated that in certain cases the entire families of drug dealers, including children and old members, were killed and brutally tortured.
Drugs Used By Performers and Victims of Violence:
Studies have indicated that both the performers and the victims of violence use drugs. According to a research about thirty five percent of the people aging between eighteen to twenty five years and using methamphetamine were observed to behave violently while they are under the influence of the drug. Moreover, the victims as well as the family members of the performer of intimate violence, either sexual or physical, indicated that on the day of violence or assault nearly 92% of the performers had consumed Alcohol and about 67% were reported to have consumed a combination of cocaine and alcohol. In China as well, it was indicated that people under the influence of drugs were more likely to perform intimate violence with their spouse than those who are not under the influence of drugs. In a study of violent crime rate it was observed that criminals were under the influence of drugs in nineteen percent of the cases. It was also indicated that 25% of the people showing aggressive behavior in front of the nurses in the emergency department are under the influence of drugs. It was indicated in a study that in England about 12% of the people, who were arrested for assault, resulted positive for the use of cocaine and twenty four percent resulted positive for the use of opiate. (Atkinson, Anderson, Hughes, Bellis, Sumnall & Syed, 2009)
Not only are the performers of violence indulged in the use of drugs but also the victims as well. In the U.S.A. It was observed that the women using cocaine or heroin or other hard drugs have mostly faced intimate violence or other assaults in their life and as a result of these events they have started using drugs. It was also observed that in the United States of America, the people who have been subjected to physical, sexual or child abuse are 1.5 more likely to indulge in drug use as compared to other people. In a European survey, which was conducted in many countries including England, Germany, Switzerland etcetera, it was observed that about 42% of the drug users were previously being molested or harassed in different ways. (Atkinson, Anderson, Hughes, Bellis, Sumnall & Syed, 2009)
Effects of Major Drugs and Their Relation with Violence:
The major drugs usually used by people are Alcohol, Heroine, Cocaine, Opiates etcetera. A study indicated that the use Cocaine has a strong relationship committing murder. Use of Opiates was also found to have a direct relationship with attempted murders and reckless behavior of people. The study indicated that the people using Amphetamine are more likely to indulge in robbery crimes. Opiates were also observed to be an influential stimulator of gang wars. It was indicated by the study that people using Opiates have the highest probability of committing violent crimes. It was indicated that Alcohol, which is considered to be the most influential factor contributing towards violence, was not as influential as other hard drugs such as Opiates, Cocaine and Heroin. Cocaine and Heroin were also indicated as influential drugs that increase the frequency of attempted murders and other hazardous activities and the users of such drugs are most likely to be the executors of violence. Marijuana was also indicated to have a strong relation to crimes such as homicides, assaults and gang wars etcetera. (Friedman, Glassman & Terras, 2001)
Use of Drugs and Crime:
It was indicated by a National Victimization Survey that about 1.2 million of the victims of violent crimes reported that the executor at the time of occurrence of crimes was under the influence of drugs. It was also indicated by the survey that in every one case out of the four cases the executor was under the influence of alcohol. In a survey it was indicated that about 14% of the prisoners committed the crime because they wanted to get the money to buy drugs. About twenty four percent of those convicted of property offense said that the major reason behind the crime was that they wanted the money so that they can get drugs. ("Alcohol and other,")
Use of Drugs and Violence against Women
In a study it was indicated that about two third of the women who were subjected to harassment and abuse reported that their spouse was under the influence of drugs. It was also recorded by the study that in every one case out of four cases, the executor of the abuse or violence had been under the influence of Alcohol. Violence in domestic affairs has an influential impact on family life especially on the lives of children. It was also observed in a study that about 50% of the children, who have witnessed intimate violence between their parents, turn to the use of illicit drugs. ("Alcohol and other,")
Relationship between Child Abuse and Use of Drugs:
There is no major reason behind child abuse. In most of the cases it has been observed that abusers have been under severe pressure or they have been under the influence of Alcohol or other hard drugs before they have abused their children. It was reported in a study that out of ten child abusers, six said that they have been under the influence of Alcohol. And 50% of these abusers said that they had been drinking for six hours or more before the abuse. ("Alcohol and other,")
Fatal Injuries and Their Relationship with the Use of Drugs
It was indicated by a study that Alcohol has been an influential factor that lead towards most of the fatal accidents. About thirty two percent of all murder cases included in the influence of alcohol. Alcohol was also included in thirty one percent of deaths caused by unintentional injury. In addition to that, Alcohol was also found to be an active stimulator of suicides in twenty three percent of the cases. Alcohol does not only stimulates non-traffic fatal injuries but it was also observed that about thirty two percent of the car accidents causing fatal injuries included a drunk driver.
It is clear from the statistical analysis that drugs have a strong correlation with violence and different drugs lead towards the execution of different violent crimes. Alcohol has been indicated as a major cause of interpersonal abuse and hard and expensive drugs as a major cause of robbery, homicides and gang wars. Violence related to drug is an important problem for most of the societies but through proper use of media and other agencies these societies can reduce this threat. This problem requires…