Drugs and Alcohol Effects on College / Campuses
Current Literature On Drugs And Alcohol On College Campuses
Drugs and Alcohol Effects on College Campuses
The number of college students using the drug and alcohol in the United States of America has been on the increase. Binge drinking is the way most students in these colleges take alcohol. College students are a visible group where alcohol and drug abuse have become a common place. Effects of alcohol on college students cause social, legal, and academic problems. Students, on the other hand, engage in risky sex behaviors and other physical activities that might even result to death. Studies indicate that approximately four out of five college students in the United States abuse alcohol. About 1700 college students aged an estimate between 18-24-year die unintentionally because of alcohol and drug abuse. Most of these deaths are a result of motor vehicle accidents or injuries from assault (O'Malley & Johnston, 2002).
Alcohol and drug abuse in colleges is associated with rape. About 97000 students in United States experience rape episodes in colleges. Victims of rape in colleges are mostly associated with alcohol, drug abuse and in other cases date rape. A majority of college students report experiencing blackouts, an induced alcohol memory loss. Excessive drinking in U.S. colleges and Universities are rampant. Preventing alcohol and drug abuse is an important task of college administrators since its negative consequences is destructive (O'Malley & Johnston, 2002). College and Universities administrators need to provide information about their policies on alcohol and drug abuse. This information is often in institution's websites.
Influence of Alcohol and Drugs on Rape
Consumption of alcohol has effects on aggression and sexual behavior of individuals. Sexual aggression includes non-stranger sexual assault referred to as date rape. In this form of rape assault, the victim is likely to know the perpetrator of the deed. This form of rape had serious consequences on campuses for the last decades. College men are more likely to assault their female counterparts as research shows. A research in 1985, by Mary Koss a professor at Kent State University on 3187 nationally conclude that 15.4% women had been victims of rape, and in that 12.1% of had been victims of attempted rape. Another research in the year 1997 approximately on 4446 women show that 1.7% women experienced rape and 1.1% of them experienced attempted rape cases. However, this did not account for variations of semesters (Mohler-Kuo, Dowdall, Koss, & Wechsler, 2004). Further, the research points out that first year students, prior, and white students are more vulnerable to sexual assault.
White women are more likely to experience rape, and intoxication on alcohol and rape. Majority of the victims recognize their assailants. Black women in the United States of America are more likely to report rape cases from strangers, and teenage girls in these states feel that stranger rape is a serious form of rape. Alcohol intoxication and drug abuse impairs judgment and influences behavior. Alcohol and drugs influence personal judgments. These drugs diminish a person's ability to resist sexual advances and promote aggressive behavior. Studies show that a consistent use of alcohol may promote non-sexual and sexual violence. The norms of American college students are to drink heavily and engage in casual sexual activities. Approximately 50% of sexual assaults in America are associated to alcohol use, and 55% of victims and 74% of perpetrators are a representative of college students. In addition, a 9% of offenders and victims approximately are under the age of 21 years.
Variation of Rape
A special report by Blade criticized "Koss" study that 55% of rape victims had been intoxicated. According to blade, Koss ignored a statute by the Ohio state that excluded those situations where a person plies a partner with drugs and drinks with the hope of lowering inhibition. There are various forms of rape associated with drugs and alcohol. These are acquaintance rape, date rape, and Gang rape. Acquaintance rape represents the most common form of sex. Victims of this form of rape range from 18 to 29 years of age. Victims and perpetrators in many instances know one another while 40% of those individuals represent casual relationships (Mohler-Kuo, Dowdall, Koss & Wechsler, 2004). This form of rape includes date rape, gang, and party rape. Sexual assault has become...
Many of the victims know the perpetrators personally or on an organizational level. The other form of rape associated with drugs, alcohol is date rape, and someone known to the victim commits this form of rape.
It normally occurs between individuals who know each other on a personal or social level. It happens between individuals who have been dating or who had sexual episodes in the past. This form of rape affects schoolmates, co-workers, acquaintances, and friends. Date rape is the most unreported sex in colleges and campuses in the U.S.A. Date rape also referred to as hidden rape or acquaintance rape is a growing problem in the present western society. A report by the National Victim Center reports that one in four college women have experienced a rape episode or an attempt. The report further indicates that young women are considerable at risk of becoming victims. In addition, statistics according to the National College Women Sexual Victimization state that one in every 36 women experience attempted or complete sex by the end of a college school year (Marshall, Roberts, Donnelly & Rutledge, 2011). Nine out of ten women know their attacker, and a majority of women raped proclaims to have been using drugs and alcohol.
Gang rape is a form of rape perpetuated by many offenders at once. According to The Bureau of Justice report, 15% of all rape cases involve multiple offenders in colleges and campuses and gang rape account for 16% to 10% of all attempted rape in these colleges. In addition, gang rape associates to men of the upper to middle class. This form of rape has become the norm due to peer acceptance, acceptance of rape myths and the use of alcohol and drugs. Fraternity members are more likely to engage in rape than any other members of the population.
Montclair State University policies and National Laws
Montclair University has policies and codes of conduct regulating alcohol and drug abuse within the campus. The University like other institutions in the country has its own policies regulating sale, manufacturing, procession, and distribution of drugs and other illegal substances. The college's policy is to ensure a drug free zone where procession, distribution, manufacturing, and sale of unsupervised drugs are illegal. The college shall initiate appropriate actions and measures for offenders of this code. Every student before admission takes an oath not to manufacture, dispense, distribute, be in procession, or use controlled drugs during their period in college. A student benefits from psychological services in a case where one's mental status is not stable. Further, Montclair state continually offers programs, courses, and educational services on alcohol and drug abuse
Policy on Alcohol
The college's policy on alcohol consumption branch out of into two laws. The first principle relates to the laws of the state of New Jersey and the second associate with the social framework that associates with the consumption of alcohol in social events. Students with alcohol related problems might be referred to psychological services within the campus. Further series of programs on alcohol work for the university. Additionally, state and municipal penalties on offences do apply. The dean of students initiates actions as prescribed by Non- Academic student's handbook. In the state alcoholic beverages are forbidden for individuals under the age of 21 years. Sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted to only those individuals with the legal age limit. Majority of students in Montclair University can only consume alcohol in permitted areas and on special times (Marshall, Roberts, Donnelly & Rutledge, 2011).
Alcohol consumption can only take place in the village where all residents are of a legal drinking age. There are laws controlling the consumption of alcohol within Montclair State University. These laws include the following: it is unlawful to indirectly or directly sell alcohol to persons, not of legal age, availing alcohol beverages to persons not of a legal age without a parent's consent is punishable by a fine of $1,000 or a jail term of six months. A person will pay a fine of $500 or their driving privileges withdrawn for a period of 6 months if found in procession of alcoholic beverages in a public area even if the container is found sealed. It is also punishable if a person below the legal age purchases alcoholic beverages in a licensed premise, and violation of this will lead to a mandatory one-year loss of driving privileges and a fine of $100.
There are other laws pertaining to procession of legal drugs. It is unlawful for an individual to posse's illegal substances, unless it is a prescription from a medical doctor. Any person who violates these requirements in relation…
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