Muhammad Ali in Egypt and the Influence dissertation

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Muhammad Ali in Egypt and the Influence of Napoleon

Services and Mission of Muhammad Ali Pasha

Reforms under the Regime of Muhammad Ali Pasha

Societal Reforms

Education Reforms

Westernization

Economic Reforms

Agricultural Reforms

Political Reforms

Political Reforms

Economic Strengthening Activities to Make Egypt Self Sufficient

Muhammad Ali the Father of Modern Egypt

AFU Armed Forces Union

CGS Chief of the General Staff

CUP the Committee of Union and Progress

Dev-Sol Revolutionary Left

Dev-Yol Revolutionary Way

D-SK Confederation of Unions of Revolutionary Workers

DP Democrat Party

EEC or EC European Economic Community or European Community

Hak-?

Confederation of Unions of Islamist Workers

IMF International Monetary Fund

JP Justice Party

MI-SK The Confederation of Unions of Nationalist Workers

M-T National Intelligence Organization

NAP Nationalist Action Party

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NDP Nationalist Democracy Party

NOP National Order Party

NSC National Security Council

NSP National Salvation Party

NTP New Turkey Party

NUC National Unity Committee

OYAK Army Mutual Assistance Association

PKK Workers' Party of Kurdistan

PRP Progressive Republican Party

RPP Republican People's Party

SHP Social Democratic Populist Party

SODEP Social Democratic Party

SPO State Planning Organisation

TPLA Turkish People's Liberation Army

Turk-?

Confederation of the Workers Unions of Turkey

TUSIAD Association of Turkish Industrialists and Businessmen

WPT Workers' Party of Turkey

Egypt has been successfully ruled by the Muhammad Ali Pasha and his family for about 147 years, the cultural history and benevolence of the era remains an integral component of the history of Egypt owing to the fact that the historical trends and evolutions of the Egypt remained is largely a part of the modern Alexandria and its customs[footnoteRef:2]. Muhammad Ali Pasha is regarded as the founding head of the Egypt and due to his ceaseless efforts and dynamic personality traits his name has seems to appear everywhere on the streets buildings and other related architectural sites. Muhammad Ali pasha entered Egypt in 1800 as Turkish Army Officer and due to his revolutionary thinking he rose to the top level to rule Egypt. His struggle for evolution and welfare of Egypt did not lasted with him but his decedents continued his struggle until the last king of Egypt Ahmed Fouad II, abdicated his rule in 1952, as a consequence of a Royal verdict decree No. 65-1952[footnoteRef:3]. Throughout the presence of the Muhammad Ali Pasha's regime the Egypt witnessed and experienced new and modern enlightenment in Egypt and an equally paced up pace modernization. [2: Alston, R. (1995). Soldier and Society in Roman Egypt: A Social History. London: Routledge. P 8-102 Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109085852] [3: Alston, R. (1995). Soldier and Society in Roman Egypt: A Social History. London: Routledge. P 110 Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109085852]

The Ottoman times

The prominence on the army's role in Turkish history and politics, from Ottoman times to the present, suggests a continuity which seems believable, as per the subtle criterion and subjective development. It assumes that the army was an institution which never changed its world view, which it stood above society and acted independently of it, in order to safeguard the interest of the dwellers of the region functional under the military. It also tends to obscure the changes, often sharp and dramatic, which Turkey has experienced and which provide a better and deeper understanding of modern Turkish history and politics. There is always the thread of continuity which runs through the history of virtually every nation and there is rarely a total break with the past, as this connection of the past and the future values ensures the sustainability of a nation at large[footnoteRef:4]. Yet it is vital not to lose sight of the turning points. This is particularly true in the case of modern Turkey and the way the Ottoman Empire expanded the operations and exercised powers in Egypt and other Arab countries. Ataturk laid stress on the fact that the regime they were creating had nothing in common with the former Ottoman state and was a complete break with the corrupt past[footnoteRef:5]. However, there is another thread of continuity which runs through the history of modern Turkey and which helps us to make better sense of the contemporary situation than does the factor of military involvement. This was the Turkish determination to find a place for their empire in the emerging world economy at the beginning of the nineteenth century, dominated by Britain and Europe in the industrial age. At first, the sultans hoped to meet the growing Western challenge by simply creating a modern army[footnoteRef:6]. But by the nineteenth century, the ruling classes realized that they could not withstand Western pressure by only military means. In order to do so, they knew that they had to create a modern political, social, and economic structure of which the modern army was but one part[footnoteRef:7] [4: Ansari, H. (1986). Egypt, the Stalled Society / . Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. P 102 Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102522123] [5: Asante, M.K. (2002). Culture and Customs of Egypt. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. P45-56 Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111669565] [6: Assmann, J. & Stroumsa, G.G. (Eds.). (1999). Transformations of the Inner Self in Ancient Religions. Boston: Brill p 56-90. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080134] [7: Assmann, J. & Stroumsa, G.G. (Eds.). (1999). Transformations of the Inner Self in Ancient Religions. Boston: Brill p89-101. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080134]

Biography of the Great Leader

Muhammad Ali Pasha was significant Ottoman officer and a reforming viceroy from 1805 to 1848; additionally he is also regarded as the founder of the dynasty that ruled Egypt until 1952. The founding figure of Egypt Muhammad Ali was born in Qavalla (Macedonia), Muhammad 'Ali was the son of a tobacco merchant who was a soldier, this can hereby be deduced that the personality and the leadership qualities and warship talent of Muhammad Ali were in his blood. His military and probably naval experience was gleaned from fighting bandits and pirates in his province[footnoteRef:8]. He became an officer in the Ottoman army despite his lack of formal education; he did not learn to read until he was forty-five. He came to Egypt in 1801 as second-in-command of a 300-man Albanian regiment in the Ottoman army, allied with the British, to drive out the French invaders[footnoteRef:9]. He persuaded the Mamluks to aid the Ottomans and his Albanians against the French. He then maneuvered the ulama and Mamluk factions into ousting the Ottoman-appointed governors, KHUSRAW and then KHURSHID, so that he could himself be named to their post in 1805. He went on contending with the remaining Mamluks, until he had them massacred in 1811[footnoteRef:10]. Acting as a loyal vassal of the Ottoman sultan, Muhammad 'Ali sent troops to suppress the Wahhabi rebellion in Arabia, thus conquering the Hijaz for Egypt. Constructing a Nile River fleet, he also sent forces to conquer the eastern Sudan in 1821, hoping to staff his armies with Blacks, but most could not survive Egypt's climate[footnoteRef:11]. He replaced them with Egyptian peasants, who had not been conscripted since antiquity. He ordered dams, dikes, canals, and catch basins built to improve Nile irrigation, and many cash crops were introduced, including long-staple Egyptian cotton. By putting all agricultural land under a state monopoly, he controlled the output and price of cash crops, thus raising the funds needed to pay for his other reforms. [8: Badran, M. (1995). Feminists, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press p 89-90. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100249537] [9: Badran, M. (1995). Feminists, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press p 99&105. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100249537] [10: Badran, M. (1995). Feminists, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press p 56-78. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100249537] [11: Badran, M. (1995) p 45]

Muhammad Ali Pasha was the Ottoman officer and the reforming viceroy from 1805 to 1848, and founder of the dynasty that ruled Egypt until 1952. He was born in Qavalla (Macedonia), Muhammad 'Ali was the son of a tobacco merchant who was also a soldier.

In 1848 he agreed to relinquish his governorship to Ibrahim, who died soon afterward, leaving the post to 'ABBAS HILMI I. Muhammad Ali was one of the ablest men ever to govern Egypt and did much to in- crease the country's power and wealth, but he showed no concern for his subjects' welfare and established a system of personal rule that, in the hands of less capable descendants, would prove ruinous to his dynasty and injurious to Egypt. He died at Ras al-Tin Palace[footnoteRef:12]. [12: Baer, G. (1962). A History of Landownership in Modern Egypt, 1800-1950. New Haven: Oxford University Press p 98-101. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91598140]

Muhammad Ali in Egypt and the Influence of Napoleon

Services and Mission of…[continue]

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