Advancements in globalization in the current century, and the technological advancements, the globe has experienced drastic changes in terms of the culture and social related issues. People in both developed and developing states are changing their conservativeness and embracing new ideas. Awareness is being realized and the levels of literacy are gradually increasing. Information on life and its importance are clearer compared to the past, where people where not exposed. Due to this, there are heated debates on the issues of abortion in the society. This paper will analyze the situation in which poverty is affecting abortion, and how poor women's lives are implicated. Policies that assist to counter these issues are also discussed critically.
Scientific researches and innovation has been highest in the 21st century. Scientists are aiming at bettering the human life. However, the proposals made by the science research concerning abortions have led to controversies. People across different ethnic backgrounds support different opinions when it comes to the issue of abortion. Regardless of religious groups, cultural settings and ethical backgrounds, many people, as both demeaning to life and dignity, have criticized abortion. Despite its effects, abortion is still practiced in most parts of the world. For instance, in New York City alone, just between 2001 and 2008, over 80,000 abortions happened annually. The figures are alarming, and most of the abortions were brought about by low-income rates for the victims. In addition, most of those who opted for abortions did not undergo medication abortions, due to cost implications (Yunzal-Butler, Sackoff & Li, 2011).
Implications of poverty to abortion rates
Using simple models, results have shown that poverty has increased rates of abortion not only in the United States, but globally. Studies show that lowering the cost of inducing abortions even motivates the process more. More poor women will be ready and equally willing to undergo the controversial process, because they will afford it. In the states where there is no provision for Medicaid to fund abortion, the rates of abortion are higher. Women who are poor fear responsibility and opt for abortion. Due to lack of job opportunities and fluctuating trends in the economies, many argue that abortion is one of the ways to curb increased birth rates. However, the other factors also count, including drug use, psychological issues and broken relationships, the present terrible economic trends are a factor to excessive cases of abortion. To the poor women, bearing children means extra costs and expenses (MacNair, 2012).
Evidently, the effect of poverty is getting tricky every year. Material deprivation is one of the obvious factors that pressurize women to abort. The society is influenced by the assumption that those that are poor are probably unable to take charge in protecting the children, as far as providing needs is concerned. Once a poor woman aborts, there is a high probability for a second abortion, and a third. The condition (socio-economical) of women deteriorates more with any additional abortion. The bonds between men and women are also broken, and more marriages are destroyed in the occurrence of an abortion. The established fact that those with lower income are more philosophically opposing to this threat of abortion proves why the high-income earners are hit more with the post-abortion consequences (MacNair, 2012).
Abortion also has the effect of drug addiction, because of the depression experienced afterwards. In the case of poor women, most of them cannot afford expensive drugs like cocaine end up using cheap drugs that have a greater impact on their health.
Awareness and information on the adversity of the effects that come with abortion is necessary for all women, regardless of their economic situation. As the governments of different countries try to subsidize the costs for abortion, the women take advantage. They become careless and indulge in mannerisms that support pregnancies. There is an assumption that the process of abortion will not cost much. Little do they know that there is time wasting, and due to the nature of the problem there could also be harsh results. There are women who are also influenced by other parties into abortions. The effect is significant because of the perception that poor women cannot raise children. Strategies have to be put in place, to ensure a world where there is respect for life, people have dignity and mothers do not undergo any mental disturbances. This has to be realized through right implementation of policies to control abortion rate (MacNair, 2012).
However, the practice has been met by the controversy that will not help solve anything. Apart from poverty, abortion is caused by unwanted pregnancies, cultural beliefs, and lack of meaning to the importance of life. Because abortion is linked to death and loss of innocent lives, controversy has majored on whether the practice is allowed or not. Due to the death issue many support that the practice is immoral and in fact against the law. Nonetheless, the fact will remain that abortion is unethical, but can be induced in special situations especially when the mother is in danger of losing life.
Secondly, there is the aspect of who to decide for the abortion. Are women exercising their freedom? Are they the once to decide on what to do? Many questions arise. It is necessary to allow women make decisions. Gender discrimination has to be avoided, and this being the 21st century the rights for both men and women have to be right. Many women undergo abortions unwillingly because someone else is responsible for making her decisions. There are also the women that are forced to deliver babies, which they did not want to, due to their own personal and social issues. From this, a conclusion can be assumed, that it is the society and cultures that decide whether a woman is to abort. Mothers are still denied their freedom. In some cases, it is the parents of the girl that decide on if the girl is to abort or not (Kimport, Foster & Weitz, 2011).
Societies that are not privileged and are less aware in terms of current innovations and developments are more prone to abortion cases. Illiteracy and conservativeness are major causes of abortion, where men dominate over the women. As the general rates of abortion reduce, household with little incomes; below the federal poverty levels, still experience cases of abortion. Economic reasons are the biggest threat to mothers who have the option to abort. Due to reduced maternal and family planning services support from the government, the rates of unwanted pregnancies have risen. The recessions experienced by the developing countries has also led to depletion in the supply of contraceptives to the women, putting them to higher risk of getting pregnant. The high abortion rates are also caused by the inability to afford medication during abortion and also the payment fees to the medical practitioners assisting to induce the abortions.
Many complications are brought about by induced abortion. The minor effects range from inferior infections, bleeding, abdominal pains, vomiting and fever. In case of adverse effects, the victim may experience excessive bleeding, cervical injuries, perforation and ripping of the uterus and anesthesia complications. Despite the aid of practitioners, the patients who undergo abortion in the hospitals still develop fatal post-abortion difficulties in their health. Reproductive systems are destroyed and may lead to future malfunctioning. The fact that operations and stitching are part of the abortion processes means the women are psychologically affected, due to the pains experienced during induction of abortion.
Policy options to counter the problem of abortion
Many governments are using campaigns to assist in reducing, if not eradication of cases of abortion. Support and funding parental counseling has been subsidized, after confirming that most of the organizations offering the services are misappropriating the funds, which are for planned purpose. When the situation at hand is analyzed, it evidently seems that various governments are against the funding of abortion related projects. Virginia and Texas were among the first countries to implement the policy of fund reduction for abortion related problems. The aim of most governments is to increase the cost of abortion, hence discourage the practice due to expenses involved. Cost in this case hardly means the monetary implications only. Other costs that come with abortion include traumatic experiences and physical pain (Levine, 2004).
Currently, abortion has been legalized in most parts of the United States. Women have been granted power to terminate a child, in any stage of pregnancy. Any reason is accepted for abortion and this has been around for over 35 years, since 1973 when the U.S. Supreme Court declared abortion as a right in the constitution. Any factors barring the women from accessing abortion were declared as unconstitutional. However, this is contrary to the Irish and Spanish regions, where up to the 80's where abortion is illegal and no action is being taken to curb the few cases occurring (Djerassi, 1986).