Sociology and Anthropology in Tourism Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

symbolizes the sum total of qualitative and quantitative values on which the degree and extent of exploitability of the region for the purpose of tourism depends. It Is difficult to explain the 'potential' in numerical terms as it involves many factors in the context of tourism.

Tourism deals with the physical, psychological and sometimes even spiritual demands of the people from diverse geographical, socio-cultural and economic background that travel under different motives, interests, preferences and immediate needs. In other words, tourism development in any area depends on availability of recreational resources, in addition to factors like climate, seasons, accessibility, attitude of the local people, planning and 'tourist plant' facility. All this put together creates a 'tourism magnetic atmosphere', which is resource base for the tourism

Factors influencing tourism and assist in exploiting the complete potential of an area, therefore vary from socio-economic to political and evolution of demand. These factors can be summed up as follows:

i) Increasing leisure due to the system of 'holidays with pay'.

A ii) Hike in income.

A iii) Increased mobility.

A iv) Growing impact of education.

A v) Greater mobility of younger people.

A vi) Offers of low cost holidays.

A vii) Growth in international business.

A viii) Increased offers of packaged tours.

A ix) World exhibitions and trade fairs

Tourism has a long history in India. Indian tourism is primarily cultural tourism, because Indian culture is one of the very few cultures where several elements of the past continue to live in the present. India is the home of one of the world's oldest civilization, its social structure as it exists today can be traced back thousands of years and empires of great size and complexity existed here much earlier than anything comparable in Europe.

India offers what tourism demands, i.e. It offers a variety to the tourists. It has mountains hills, valleys, highest peaks, rich beaches, landscapes, scenic beauty, monuments, memorials, tradition of art and dance, fairs and festivals and cheaper facilities for adventure sports and shopping. Thus nature, history, growth and development have made India one of the most attractive tourist countries of the world. It has every potential of further growth and development

Tourism had a beginning in European countries. Many curious British, French and Spanish men traveled to the East, West and the South, bringing about discovery of new lands and then promoting them as areas of trade and commerce.

Thus, they traveled for trade, commerce, to seek fortunes and to acquire new knowledge. By the end of the middle ages it had become customary to undertake pilgrimages to the shrines of Europe and Middle East. It was during the 18th Century that Annual holidays were introduced in Europe, and this was a landmark. People began to undertake travel in large numbers and there was an extra-ordinary growth of tourism. The term 'holiday' is derived from 'holy days' associated with religious, observances. Today it is used in a broader sense meaning respite from the routine of daily life and enjoying a time for leisure, recreation and amusement. Romans were the first pleasure travelers.

The early part of nineteenth century witnessed great technological development in Europe and North America. Development of railways, airways, water transport and motorcars introduced new dimension of speed, comfort and efficiency. This brought about mass travel and growth of international travel and tourism. People began to move to different areas, which attracted them for different reasons.

Ever since the beginning of mass tourism, especially after World War I researchers have stated various motivators for travel. These can be categorized as follows:

I) Physical motivation - which can be further divided into:


Relaxation, rest and recreation.


Participation in sports.

A ii) Cultural motivation - which can be further divided into:

Religious curiosity.

Cultural curiosity.

Historical curiosity.

Archaeological interest.

A iii) International motivation - which can be further divided into:

For creation new friends a social circle.

Family vists

Spiritual comfort.

A iv) Status and prestige motivation - which can be further divided into:

For social status.

Profession or business.

Traveling brings people into contact with each other and, as tourism has an educational element, it can foster understanding between peoples and cultures and provide cultural exchange between hosts and guests. Because of this, the chances increase for people to develop mutual sympathy and understanding and to reduce their prejudices. For example, jobs provided by tourism in Belfast, Northern Ireland, are expected to help demobilize paramilitary groups as the peace process is put in place. In the end, sympathy and understanding can lead to a decrease of tension in the world and thus contribute to peace.

Tourism can add to the vitality of communities in many ways. One example is that events and festivals of which local residents have been the primary participants and spectators are often rejuvenated and developed in response to tourist interest.

In the first Global Summit on Peace through Tourism (Nov. 2000), more than 450 world leaders of the travel and tourism industry ratified an "Amman Declaration" that recognized travel and tourism as a global peace industry. The document committed itself to building a culture of peace through tourism that supports tourism as a fundamental human activity, free of undue restriction and respectful of human differences and cultural diversity. "Peaceful relationships among all people should be promoted and nurtured through sustainable tourism," the document said. It called for protection and restoration of historical monuments and landmarks, accessible to all people, as "valuable assets for humanity and legacies for future generations." Preservation and wise use of the environment, coupled with ecological balance, "are essential to the future of tourism" while acknowledging "ancient wisdom and care for the Earth." Source: International Institute for Peace through Tourism

The jobs created by tourism can act as a vital incentive to reduce emigration from rural areas. Local people can also increase their influence on tourism development, as well as improve their job and earnings prospects, through tourism-related professional training and development of business and organizational skills.

Tourism can boost the preservation and transmission of cultural and historical traditions, which often contributes to the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources, the protection of local heritage, and a renaissance of indigenous cultures, cultural arts and crafts.

Tourism has forced the Balinese to reflect on their artistic output as just one cultural identifier. The presence of visitors who continually praise Balinese art and culture has given people a kind of confidence and pride in their art, and made them truly believe that their culture is glorious and thus worthy of this praise and therefore justly admired. This realization removed any possibility in the people's mind that their art was in any way inferior to the art of advanced nations, and plays an important role in conserving and developing the art in general."

Source: Bali Vision

Natural or physical factors include accessibility location space, scenery, climate, and animal life. The most important among these is the landscape and the climate Mountains, hills, lakes, forests, coastal beaches attract people. In tropical regions, cool weather, clear sky or hills are an attraction. Himalayas in India, Kovalam beach in Kerala, Puri in Orissa and many other areas with rich forests attract the people. National parks, valley of flowers in the Himalayas are favorable physical conditions and therefore have great magnetic attractions

The value of unpolluted seaside environment and the "healthy air" of hill stales were realized in 18th century, when doctors prescribed visits to such places in U.K.

Some of the famous seaside attractions include Florida in USA, West Indies islands, Blackpool and Brighton in UK, Rimini in Italy, and Mauritius in Africa. Many sports centers also attract a large number of tourists to take part in skiing, skating and mountaineering. Winter sports are famous in St. Horitz, Zermatt and Gastaad in Switzerland Austria and Sweden are known for summer sports like surfing and sailing.

The scenic beauty of Switzerland with the hillside and lakeside resorts at Montreaux, Geneva and Lugano is a major tourist attraction. Katmandu in Nepal also brings international tourists.

In America, centers of attraction are innumerable. To account for a few, we can name California for its wealth and Hollywood for its glamour, Washington for its historical significance and Florida for its golden beaches.

For Oriental charm and mysticism. South East Asia, and Japan and China in the Far East are a special attraction to the people of West who are victims of stress and materialism. Tourism in the modem sense of the term, has developed in the Western World in the second half of the 19th century. Monarchies collapsed and in a new democratic and liberated atmosphere, tourism began to grow and assumed gigantic proportions. Since then, the West has seen reasonably stable governments, which made the political climate favourable for promotion of tourism.

At one time, USSR was a unique tourist attraction for the tourists from the Western World because of its socio-political system. Here, there was a steady flow of American visitors to USSR.…

Sources Used in Documents:


Brown, F. (1998) 'Tourism: Blight or Blessing?' Butterworth Heinemann: UK, HB, ISBN 075063989X.

Borocz, J. (1996), 'Leisure migration: A Sociological Study on Tourism', Pergamon Press: UK, ISBN 0080425607 HB

Butler, R. And Hinch, T. (eds) (1996) 'Tourism and Indigenous Peoples', ITBP: UK, HB, ISBN 1861522096

Butler, R., Hall, R. And Jenkins, M. (eds) (1998) 'Tourism and Recreation in Rural Areas', Wiley: UK, HB, ISBN 0471976806

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