Competitiveness of Sustenance Lithographic Printing Industry with the Digital Printing Industry: A Case Study of the Lithographic Printing Industry in Nigeria
Major Constraints Affecting the Lithographic Printing Industry
The Effect of the Total Quality Management System on Lithographic
Industry and Compliance with a Changing World
Comparison of Lithographic Printing and Digital Printing to Develop
Avenues to Increase the Sale of Lithography
Stakeholder Opinions of the Proficiency of the Lithographic Printing
Although facing obsolescence from innovations in digital printing technologies, the lithographic industry is faced with several constraints to its competitiveness that form the focus of this study. The overarching aim of this study is to investigate and explore the future of the lithographic printing industry and develop ways on how lithographic printing can be sustained in the changing world of emerging technologies in the printing industry today. In support of this main aim, the study's objectives were to: provide a detailed review into the literature about the past, present and the future of the lithographic industry; identify major constraints affecting the lithographic printing industry and to suggest vital avenues to improve them; determine the effect of the Quality Management System on the lithographic industry and how compliance is necessary in a changing world and dynamic marketplace; provide a comprehensive comparison of the traditional lithographic printing industry with the digital printing industry to identify avenues to increase the sales of traditional lithographic products; and, determine the prevailing stakeholder opinions concerning the proficiency of the lithographic printing industry. Salient conclusions and recommendations are presented in the study's concluding chapter.
A Comparison of the Competitiveness of Sustenance Lithographic Printing Industry with the Digital Printing Industry: A Case Study of the Lithographic Printing Industry in Nigeria
The aim of this study was to investigate and explore the future of the lithographic printing industry and develop ways on how lithographic printing can be sustained in the changing world of emerging technologies in the printing industry today.
The objectives of this study were as follows:
To provide a detailed review into the literature about the past, present and the future of the lithographic industry;
To identify major constraints affecting the lithographic printing industry and to suggest vital avenues to improve them.
To determine the effect of the Quality Management System on the lithographic industry and how compliance is necessary in a changing world and dynamic marketplace.
To provide a comprehensive comparison of the traditional lithographic printing industry with the digital printing industry to identify avenues to increase the sales of traditional lithographic products; and,
To determine the prevailing stakeholder opinions concerning the proficiency of the lithographic printing industry.
To achieve the above-stated aim and objectives, this study used a critical review of the relevant literature which is congruent with the guidance provided by Fraenkel and Wallen (2001, p. 48) that, "Researchers usually dig into the literature to find out what has already been written about the topic they are interested in investigating. Both the opinions of experts in the field and other research studies are of interest. Such reading is referred to as a review of the literature." A well conducted literature review can provide a number of valuable outcomes, including the following cited by Woods and Ellis (2003, p. 51):
1. It helps describe a topic of interest and refine either research questions or directions in which to look;
2. It presents a clear description and evaluation of the theories and concepts that have informed research into the topic of interest;
3. It clarifies the relationship to previous research and highlights where new research may contribute by identifying research possibilities which have been overlooked so far in the literature;
4. It provides insights into the topic of interest that are both methodological and substantive;
5. It demonstrates powers of critical analysis by, for instance, exposing taken for granted assumptions underpinning previous research and identifying the possibilities of replacing them with alternative assumptions;
6. It justifies any new research through a coherent critique of what has gone before and demonstrates why new research is both timely and important.
Likewise, Silverman (2005, p. 300) points out that a literature review can answer the following questions:
1. What do we know about the topic?
2. What do we have to say critically about what is already known?
3. Has anyone else ever done anything exactly the same?
4. Has anyone else done anything that is related?
5. Where does your work fit in with what has gone before?
6. Why is your research worth doing in the light of what has already been done?
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This study used a seven-chapter format to achieve the above-stated aim and objective. Chapter one of the study was used to describe the aim and objectives, and chapter two was used to provide a review of the literature concerning the history of lithography. Chapter three of the study was used to identify major constraints affecting the modern lithographic printing industry and chapter four describes the effect of the Total Quality Management system on the lithographic industry and compliance in a changing marketplace. A comparison of lithographic printing and digital printing to develop avenues to increase the sale of lithography in chapter five is followed by an assessment of stakeholders opinions concerning the proficiency of the lithographic printing industry today. Finally, salient conclusions and recommendations are presented in the concluding chapter.
Review of the Literature
This chapter provides a review of the relevant literature, including books, journals, magazine and other about the past, present and the future of the lithographic industry in general and the lithographic industry in Nigeria in particular, followed by a discussion concerning major constraints affecting the lithographic printing industry and recommendations for vital avenues to improve them in Chapter Three below.
Background and Overview
Lithography involves drawing with some type of greasy substance, typically a crayon, on a piece of metal, stone, paper surface, and then using this original plate to print (Beaujon 1936). According to Beaujon (1936, p. 52), "Lithography is based on the fact that grease attracts grease and is repelled by water. It is the most direct of all the graphic arts, for in practising it the artist first sees the exact value of each line that he draws and then has his drawing reproduced so accurately that it may truly be said to have been multiplied." Just as the camera never lies, lithographic printing is an exacting process (Beaujon 1936) that demands care and attention to achieve optimal results and improvement in these areas were achieved in an incremental fashion as discussed further below.
Early Trends in Lithography
Although the methods of preparing lithographic stones and preparing drawings on them remained essentially unchanged since the process was developed by the Bavarian printer Alois Senefelder in 1798, a number of new methods for lithographic printing emerged as new presses were introduced (Pierce 2009). According to Beaujon (1936, p. 52), "The best medium on which to draw is Kelheim stone, that on which Senefelder was by chance working when he discovered the art." The early lithographic printing processes used three grades of lithographic stone as follows:
1. Blue (hard): using for engraving;
2. Grey (medium): used for very fine work; and,
3. Yellow (soft): used for relatively unimportant work (Beaujon 1936).
By the early 19th century, lithographic processes provided the printers with the ability to mechanically transfer images from one surface to another (Cook 2008). In this regard, Harrison (1998, p. 95) reports that, "Until lithography emerged in 1822, artists had to cut, etch or engrave their drawings on wood, steel or copper. Mass lithography (oil-based ink on stone) began in 1828." These early lithographic printing methods were used for a variety of applications, including texts, maps, and pictorial drawings (Cook 2008).
During the 1850s, printing researchers including mapmakers, experimented with different ways to create transferable photographic images (Cook 2008). According to Mumford (1999, pp. 168-178), early successful efforts at photographic transfers of line images for lithographic map reproduction were separately achieved in Australia and England by 1860. According to Cook (2008, p. 138), "Thereafter, such transfers were often used to create preprinting images for relief and intaglio reproduction processes, as well as lithographic printing images."
Nevertheless, the quality of even the best photographed line image was inferior to hand engraving; however, the fact that drafting maps in pen-and-ink cost far less compared to wood or copper engraving was a major selling point for the technology (Cook 2008). In fact, lithographic printing languished for a period during the mid- to- second-half of the 19th century until in "suddenly came into favor again" (Roger-Marx and Gloeckner 1939, p. 44).
The cause of the temporary decline in the popularity of the lithographic printing method was attributable, at least in part, to the increasing competition from other emerging technologies. In this regard, Beaujon (1936, p. 60) that:
Already in 1840, etchings were competing with lithographs in L'Artiste and Beraldi was announcing the decline of lithography. In…