Other polices that are in use in organizations include five day work week, flextime, family leave, and employee assistance programs and turn over intention. The policies include the government-mandated Family and Medical Leave Act which stipulates that an employee is provided with 12 weeks of unpaid leave of absence for family or personal needs, and discretionary policies offered by the organization voluntarily.
Family leave policies allow employees to be away from their workplace for a varying period of time because of family responsibilities. However some specific polices for time away from work for maternity, paternity or adoptions are at the discretion of the employer in different organization. Family leave policies differ between organizations or employers. Female employees are however entitled to have a minimum of 10-week maternity leave in case of pregnancy.
1.2.2. What are the aims and objectives of the policies?
The need for family friendly policies is to give parents a chance to spend more time with their children and also take care of the loved ones especially the elderly. It is advocated as a way of reducing work and life stress among employees, the programs are also effective because they allow the employees to have more choice that is they have a choice to engage in many other activities. Individual react to stress according to their personality characteristics (Invancevich & Matterson, 1993)
Besides that employees become more productive and are in position to improve their economic status and quality of life. The employers through such policies are in position to keep valuable employees and recruit the best. Employees who benefit from such polices also become good for the society.
To implement these policies in an organization, the management has to decide where to start, the aim of the policies for purpose of delivering fairness among the employees. It is necessary for the organization to carry out research to find out needs of the employees and how they can be met. Besides that, the research is necessary to analyze the success of policies that have implemented earlier or elsewhere and their results. The organization also need to identify potential costs and benefits and if there are any alternatives that can be put in place. While at it (looking at how to implement the policies) the organization or the government should endeavor to seek to include other involved sectors.
1.2.3. When and who should promote family policies?
To promote family-friendly polices in the work place and in the government, it is necessary to garner for support of other influential groups such as trade unions and associations, working families, business associations, policy makers and the media.
People have to be involved in the policies. In fact for better success it is ideal that an organization hold meetings to discuss on the implementation process and success. Most organizations fail because they are not flexible with their employees and they feel left out of the process.
The government sometime comes in to demand that organizations provide these friendly policies to their employees. The government can encourage family-friendly policies by laws or other methods in business and public life. The government can mandate that businesses institute family-friendly policies, it can also tax breaks and subsidies to encourage businesses to adopt family friendly polices, it can also come in to fund and maintain family oriented public facilities while encouraging the policies to run among public agencies and services. It can also mandate a health insurance plan for all families.
Others who should come in to demand for such policies include business people, political society and other policy makers, people affected by family friendly policies, the media, and also a broad-based coalition. The family-friendly policies should be promoted if the employees and families are raising the issue this shows that they are being affected by the problem and it is time that the organization addressed the issue. The issue should also be addressed if families are having a tough time, for instance, they no longer have time with their loved and it is affecting the family. The programs can also be implemented if family issues are in the news and the public eye, and also if family issues are highlighted in political arenas, during labor negotiations and during an economic development campaign.
Family friendly companies have known to give family friendly policies. Organizations have realized the necessity to implement programs that will help them to recruit, replace and retain a new pool of talented workers. Family friendly companies have a company culture, family-friendly programs, compensation, childcare options, flexibility, time off and leave and workforce profile.
These companies not only have family friendly companies but have a way in which they are tracked, their availability to the employees, and the accountability to the management teams that oversee the programs.' However what is noticeable is that even as organizations endeavor to provide the programs, every employee and every family are different, and therefore have different needs.'
1.2.4. Hypothesis is tested
Family friendly policies will be positively related to employee's job work-life balance. This means the policies are meant to address the problem of a work-life balance and not other issues. Family friendly policies will be negative if they do not achieve any expected results. The policies are expected to help employees be in a position to balance his work life and family life, if this does not happen, then the policies are ineffectual. They should also aim at delivering fairness to every employee.
When work become the main central thing to an individual, the individual tends to exonerate the work domain of any blame arising from spending too much time in work and are more likely to blame the family domain. Work centrality is positively related to family-work conflict.
1.3. Study Design
The study used different approaches to answer the different research questions. Qualitative research and quantitative research has been applied to seek why and how people/employees are affected by lack of balance between work and family life. The reason behind employee's stress, low morale, low productivity is due to lack of sufficient time for them to engage in other activities that are important in their lives. Quantitative study has been used in the study to identify factors or relationships between and employees spending her time in work and how much is spent with the family.
1.4. Conclusion and Summary
The study shows that lack of balance between work and family is the leading cause of stress among employees. To make employees effective in the work place the organization is paramount in reducing stress from the family through provision of work-family friendly polices. The use of these policies may be beneficial to employees with high work centrality as they seek to manage the time and energy they spend in the family domain.
Therefore it is expected that if such employees work in a favorable environment and with a family supportive culture, they will take advantage of any organizationally provided policy to manage the conflict emanating from the family, and to have time to function effectively in the preferred work roles. Thus there is need to understand how work centrality and work and family supportive culture affect the relationship between work-family friendly policy and family -- work conflicts.
Alicia A. & Bryanne L. 2002, Family-Friendly Policies and Organizational Justice, The Pennsylvania State University
Community Business, 2004, Family Friendly Policies in Banking Industry and Turn over Intentions, Stylus Publishers, Hong Kong
Glover, S.L. & Crooker, K.J., 2006, Who Appreciates Family-Responsive Human Resource Policies: The Impact of Family-Friendly Policies on The Organizational Attachment of Parents and Non-Parents. Personnel Psychology, vol48, Issue 2, DOI: 10.111/j.1744-6570.1995.tb01757.x
Glover & Crooker, 2006; Working Life, Diversity and Intersectionality: A Critical Review and Research Agenda, London
Lester J. & Sallee M, 2009, Establishing the Family-Friendly Campus; Models for Effective Practice, Stylus Publishing, Hong Kong