Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
Public Administration in Brazil
PUBLIC ADMINSTRATION IN BRAZIL
The grassroots and rural development happen to be the main concern and responsibility of any responsive government in a political system. This because the power of political participation is significant in any developmental process of a country which has persistently eluded many people at the grassroots level. Brazil as a developing country needs to take into consideration the significant of efficient administrative responsibilities in all aspects of development. The local governments act a vital tool in promoting development and bringing positive change to the people. Presently the local governments have been mirrored with challenges that have made the entity inefficient to the local people. Development process is insignificant in instances that it does not impact the lives of the people positively in relation to the decision making process.
Public administration in Brazil
The Brazilian government, therefore, main objective of creating the local government was to deal with the efficient delivery of services to all the Brazilian people. It is evident that the local government has been faced with numerous challenges in the process of economic development, in the country. The main challenge facing the local governments in Brazil is provision of better quality life to the people. The local government urban initiatives have seen an increase from deviation of significant activities such as road construction, and other development programs to comprehensive maintenance and improvement of the residential environments. In the background, there are negative elements related to progress in terms of urbanization and national development that integrates Brazil economic growth (Burchfield et al. 2006). The country's rich green environment has been lost because of water pollution, disintegration of urban and rural societies, destruction of the waterside environment and traditional culture loss. The once beautiful scenery in many areas is gone because of a shift on emphasis that the country's economic growth has been coupled with setbacks. Administrative policies together with foregoing emphasis can be collectively termed as amenity-related initiatives.
Creation of comfy urban environments; defending and fostering of urban exquisiteness and charm is vital. The process entails preservation of areas found in the urban areas that have historic value for the country. Development of urban landscapes, as well as protection of water attachment areas is necessary for the people. The local governments need to develop suitable priority programs that protect the natural environment by incorporating them into the amenity-related agenda. The start of amenity related administration can easily be traced back to 1960s when people started becoming aware of the repercussions of environmental destruction and citizens role in the preservation. The process led to municipalities adopting sovereign bylaws and executing policies to defend areas having historic value.
The enactment of related legislation and review of associated policies were started at all levels. Apart from protection of such areas a rising number of local governments in the country are currently adopting bylaws and initiatives such as tree preservation, tree-planting, and safeguarding of notable clean water supply as part of the natural environment conservation. Other laws involving protection of the urban environment have been enacted. Inventive local authorities have put into practice policies that aggressively promote the conception of quality urban areas as well as stress on environmental conservation, which is a preventive measure. Many authorities have also adopted environmental policies, which take into consideration global environment and the local environments being part of amenity-related programs (Burchfield et al. 2006). Global founded local environmental laws ranging from recycling of wastes to building of recycling facilities to fight global warming will become extremely vital in the future, in Brazil.
The IT revolution which has taken over most parts of the country from the industrial to the economic sector and government administration forms the foundation of the contemporary society. The situation is evident in the application of the sophisticated information and technology in the creation of both the "e-government," and "local e-governments." The implementation of the new technological invention in Brazil for the local government has proved challenging in the efforts geared towards the provision of quality and efficient services. The objective of the mechanism is to enhance and facilitate smooth communication in government entities such as local government and establish the basis for advanced information.
The mechanism involves sharing and at the same time connecting the local governments in the entire country. In addition, the connection with other networks such as inter-ministerial network has been instrumental in linking up all the government sectors. At the same time, the development of the IT revolution have led to an increase of strict security measures in relation to those opposed to cyber attacks, cyber terrorism, internet crimes and web page tampering (Bengston, Fletcher, Nelson 2004). These elements have proved as setbacks in implementation of the process coupled with financial aspects. In the current, sophisticated world information and society persistent advances regarding information and technology seem to be in considerable demand. To ensure people needs are met a comprehensive approach in terms of development technology, system and management has to be considered. At the same time, a system adapted to the novel IT society is required as Local government entities need to adopt accordingly with advances in the technological revolution.
Political decentralization has to offer citizens and their elected representatives with enough power to make decisions regarding national issues. Ii is usually related to pluralistic politics as well as representative government and can also support democratization in terms of offering citizens and their representatives, authority in the formulation and policies implementation. Many advocates for political decentralization state that decisions made with total participation of the people are relevant and well informed. This is because they take into consideration the needs and interests of the local people contrary to those made by the national authorities. Brazil has embraced the notion by selection representatives from the local electorate which allows citizens to know their political representatives better. The situation also gives the elected officials a chance to understand the needs of their constituents. Political decentralization requires constitutional and statutory reforms pluralistic development of political parties, strengthening of legislatures, encouragement of efficient public interest groupings and development of local political units.
Constitution often codifies the rules touching on decentralized system by stating how they are supposed to function. Structurally, the advantageous architecture of such rules are quite straightforward as the constitutions need to be used to preserve the broad values of decentralization. Other elements include the responsibilities as well as rights of the different levels of government such as descriptions and foremost role of institutions at the local and national levels (Bengston, Fletcher, Nelson 2004). Brazilian government has put more laws which defines certain parameters associated with intergovernmental fiscal system as well as the institutional aspects of the local government organization. The mechanism involves accountabilities, procedures, remedies, key structures and regulations linked to each law that interpreted and explained practices of the policies. Laws that relate to tasks shared between sub-national and national governments need to be included in intergovernmental relations. Considerably greater aspect and specificity are offered in moving down the platform architecture all the way from Constitution down to Regulations. Equally, greater difficulty and an advanced degree of power are necessary to modify the provisions when moving from Regulations and the Constitution.
As decentralization seem to be an intricate social experiment alt need to be undertaken to ensure flexibility in changing of specificity involving implementation instruments., At the same time, enshrining both political and philosophical ideologies in the Constitution and the operation structures in terms of the laws is significant. Apart from the substantive law, a country's bureaucratic laws can have reflective impacts on the decentralization success efforts. For instance, when local expenditures have to be audited by a central authority, then rigidities must be introduced to make the benefits of decentralization difficult to attain (Heinelt & Kubler 2005). The country needs to review the legal structure for decentralization as it has proved insufficient in examining all the decentralization laws. Such laws include aspects of budgeting, civil service, service delivery to ensure a steady approach. Treatment of vital issues in both the legal and dictatorial framework has to be shaped by the government regardless of whether the process seems federal or unitary Under other federal systems, for instance local governments are totally under the influence of the State and Provincial level governments.
The Federal government becomes limited in terms of relationships it establishes with the local level government and seeks to impact on the local behavior and results through the states and provinces. A decentralization policy that has been established in Brazil is considerably complicated by one element. Participation, as well as decentralization has a close relationship. Successful decentralization needs some aspects of local participation. Sub-national governments' closeness to their constituents enables them to react quickly to the local needs and competently match public expenditure to private needs. There has to be a flow of information between the local governments and citizens for efficient service delivery. The decentralization process can enhance the opportunities for public contribution by…[continue]
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