Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Spousal and Child Abuse
Child and spousal abuse is an intentional act that results in physical and/or emotional or psychological injury on a child or spouse (or partner) by a parent or a mate, respectively (Gelles 2004). In a child, abuse more often takes the form of neglect. Child and spousal abuse and violence are major social concerns today.
The extent that children are abused by their parents or adult caretakers is difficult to measure, although it appears to occur most frequently among lower-income communities and certain ethnic and religious minorities. Abuse of children ranges from physical and emotional abuse and sexual abuse to physical and emotional neglect (Gelles). Effects of physical abuse are varied and visible: unexplained bruises, fractures and burn marks. Emotional abuse destroys the child's sense of security and self-esteem. Sexual abuse includes all acts that expose them to the sexual satisfaction of the parent or adult caretaker. Physical neglect means failure to provide at least the bare subsistence to the child, and emotional neglect, the cold, distant and un-loving behavior (Gelles).
The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect estimated that, in 1997 alone, there were around 3 million children in the United States reported to government agencies as neglected or abused. From these numbers, 56% were subjected to physical or emotional neglect, 25% to physical abuse, 13% to sexual abuse, 16% to emotional abuse, and the remaining 13% to abandonment or a combination of the common forms of abuse. The Center estimated that 2.3% of all children in the United States, or about 1.5 million, experience abuse or neglect every year. It emphasized that around 2,000 under 18 are killed by their parents or adult caretakers annually and that more children under 4 die from abuse or neglect than from any other cause, including falls, choking, drowning, fires and vehicular accidents, and that more than 18,000 of them will be permanently physically, emotionally, socially or mentally handicapped on account of abuse or neglect for the rest of their lives (Gelles). And the effects are myriad, disastrous and far-reaching: brain damage, permanent disabilities, even death; very low self-esteem, inability to relate productively with others, learning disorders, depression, dissociative identity disorder, anxiety, prostitution, aggression, and other behavioral problems, such as violence and juvenile crimes.
Abused children also encounter academic problems, agitation, a loss of a sense of belonging, great emotional distress, insomnia and nightmares (Newton 2001), obsessive behavior, a vengeful attitude, a subconscious sense of guilt and withdrawal. In adulthood, an abused child also tends to develop alcohol and substance abuse, violent practices and sexual problems.
Children who are abused are, furthermore, forced to shed off their childhood too soon to behave more like adults (Newton), such as by caring for younger siblings, cooking, cleaning, and even taking over the responsibility of parents in earning for them. These children soon become isolated from other children who can otherwise be close friends. They become either extremely extroverted or extremely introverted. Some become overachievers. Children who witness or experience domestic violence also passively respond to it in the form of anger, misery, intense terror, abnormal fear of death or of a parent dying - things that obstruct their normal emotional and social development into healthy, functioning adults at their time and with confidence in the world and in themselves. Domestic violence or abuse can and does interrupt or destroy this natural process and, instead, fill them with shock, which they cannot handle.
Even toddlers and infants, who are subjected to abuse, respond to it in different forms, such as sleep disturbances, irritability, regression in toilet habits and speech development, fear of being alone and disturbed personal autonomy (Newton).
Spousal violence or abuse occurs when one of the partners dominates the other by physically harming or verbally demeaning him or her (Jacobs 2001). Physical harm includes sexual abuse or performing sex against the will of the dominated partner.
Nine out of 10 spousal abuse victims are women, aged 19 to 29 (Jacobs). Physical signs of spousal violence or abuse include fractures, injuries in other parts of the body and un-explained bruises and cuts, some of which may be in different stages of healing.
Low self-esteem, depression and anxiety are among the symptoms of spousal abuse. It can happen to people of whatever religious, ethnic origin or income level. Studies, though, indicate that a man is more likely to abuse his wife or partner if he has a violent past or if one of them has committed child abuse…[continue]
"Spousal Violence And Abuse Effects On Children" (2004, March 23) Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/spousal-violence-and-abuse-effects-on-children-163457
"Spousal Violence And Abuse Effects On Children" 23 March 2004. Web.21 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/spousal-violence-and-abuse-effects-on-children-163457>
"Spousal Violence And Abuse Effects On Children", 23 March 2004, Accessed.21 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/spousal-violence-and-abuse-effects-on-children-163457
Television Violence and the Effects on Children Although the debate goes on as to whether or not television violence has a negative impact on children, there is ample evidence to verify that indeed, children are impacted in largely negative ways by being witnesses to violence on television. This paper provides six reasons why allowing children to watch violent TV is a bad idea and can create aggressive people later in life. Reason
Lastly, children that are abused and neglect tend to turn to spousal abuse and battering or intimate partner violence in adult life. The studies associate intimate partner violence with exposure to neglect, abuse, and witnessing parental violence in childhood (Widom & White, 2003). Moreover, children exposed to violence at home develop the same behaviors, by becoming more aggressive, and violence. This violence and aggression is alter turned to their peers
Domestic Violence and Effects on Children In the western culture, childhood is referred to as the period of special protection and rights. When a child is brought up in a safe and nurturing environment their development is expected to unfold.When a child is born, their brain is about 25% of its adult weight, which later increases to 66% by the end of first year. During the developing stages the brain is
Sexual jealousy may be the main factor for couples aged 18 to 30, but couples in their 50s have established hitting and getting hit as habits, their way of dealing with stress and problems, their bond itself. People wonder and ask why the victim does not leave the abusive relationship. Experts say that it is never easy to do so because leaving costs a lot of money and the
Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, psychological, and even sexual abuse in the home that is often a method used by one adult to establish control and power over another person (Flitcraft et al., 1992). Exposure by children to marital aggression is now a recognized public health concern. The investigation of the effects of the exposure to this type of aggression on the functioning of a child is
According to Smoll and Smith, there are two basic attitudes toward competition; an ego attitude and a mastery attitude. Parents who have an ego attitude toward their own competition -that is, they compete to win and to be better than others - are especially likely to be competitive with other parents about their child's achievements. Essentially, the parent goes from being proud to being boastful. These, then, are the four
These findings are consistent with those reported in studies of children older than 2 years but extend these findings to children who are spanked beginning at a relatively early age (Wissow Pp). In the January 2002 issue of "Journal of Counseling and Development," Lisa Fontes states that Latino parents who engage in harsh physical discipline need help, however, they are far from homogeneous and their needs vary (Fontes Pp). She