Globalization and Environment
The driving force behind the phenomena that has become known as globalization is technology (Bhagwati, 2004). Improvements in computer hardware, software, and telecommunications have caused a geometric increase in access to information that has caused a corresponding increase in economic potential. Because of improvements in technology businesses throughout the world have been able to more easily expand their access to new products, ideas, and resources.
The advances in technology have produced many changes in our society. These changes have produced many positive benefits. They have created new jobs, promoted the growth of new markets and products, and increased international trade and investment. However, there have been corresponding costs. Workers in certain segments of the economy have lost their jobs as they failed to adjust to the demand for increased technological skills. The effect on the environment is another possible cost of globalization.
The environment has been a major concern in most developed nations throughout the world for some time. Legislative requirements and voluntary compliance have caused improvements in how western nations manufacture, market, and package their products. In developing nations, however, there has been concern expressed that such nations are more concerned with profits than with environmental matters. In these nations, economic activity has progressed unregulated and led to environmental destruction. As a result of this controversy two opposing camps have evolved. On the one side there are those who advocate slower economic growth so that measures can be put in place to protect the environment while on the opposing side are those who argue that free market and technological advances provide the best tools to solve environmental concerns by lifting people out of poverty and in the process have them realize on their own the importance of environmental concerns.
Environmental issues that were once addressed on a nation by nation basis are now discussed between cooperating nations and the protection of the oceans and atmosphere is viewed as a mankind concern and not simply as a national concern. The sudden emergence of international organizations dedicated to addressing environmental concerns on an international basis is concrete evidence of the importance being afforded this matter (United Nations)
Concern with the environment is only one of the areas that globalization has impacted. The process has created the need for an internationally competent workforce that is proficient in world languages and sensitive to differences in other cultures and it has caused existing and new businesses to radically change their marketing approach.
Globalization has brought new ethnic and racial groups into the market place. For western nations this has meant that they must adjust their marketing strategies (Yucel, 2009)
. Instead of appealing to the white majority that they once directed their efforts toward businesses involved in the globalization process must now adjust their marketing efforts so that the new markets can be impacted.
With globalization the cultural differences between individuals is highlighted. As product lines like McDonalds, Coca-Cola, Google and Microsoft are seen everywhere throughout the world the fact that there are differences between us may seem minimal but the fact is that cultural differences remain nonetheless and the businesses that recognize these differences and adjust accordingly will be the most successful. The theory is that globalization will eventually cause a world society to develop but in the meantime the culture differences must be respected and businesses active on the world stage must honor them.
The integration of cultures as the result of globalization has raised some major ethical considerations. It was once possible to remain isolated within one's own nation and ignore the concerns and problems of other nations. Today national borders have less meaning and issues of trade, the environment, and health have connected everyone throughout the world in ways that were never conceived of twenty years ago. Along the way, a new world concept of what is fair and what is just has tangentially developed. A new ethical system, if you will, has emerged.
The range of issues is broad. Global warming, climate changes, economic interchange, trade liberalization, and issues of national sovereignty are examples of the areas that need to be ethically addressed. Historically, such issues were…
Of the top 150 medications that are sold by prescription in the U.S. 118 of these are medications that are either "derived from or modeled on naturally occurring substances." (SEAM Global, 2005) Some of the medications that count on habitat presently being destroyed are "aspirin, morphine, vincristine, taxol, digitalis, and most antibiotics."(SEAM Global, 2005) VI. Internet/Networking: Role Played in Preservation Through global and subglobal assessments of the ecosystem and monitoring of
22), and this may be one reason the United States is not participating in the Kyoto Protocol, the limits and agreements reached with 178 other nations are not effective in this country. With disregard for solutions such as Kyoto, it seems difficult to see how a global principle of fairness can be reached at all. Clearly, economic fairness must also be discussed in the principle of fairness. Singer notes that
Globalization Changing the Role of Managers How Globalization is Changing the Role of Managers? A manager is responsible for making the most of the individual, economic, informational and material resources in ways that could assist the attainment of the overall objectives of his/her organization. However, most of the managers have a very little understanding of achieving the goals in a disordered or antagonistic environment. In addition to this, they become more challenged
Globalization and Public Administration globalization in public administration / Human resources in Pub. Admin. Future of public administration given globalization trends The field of public administration is reliant on globalization to obtain up-to-date information on the issues surrounding daily work performances. This aspect sets in the perspective of efficiency and accuracy in decision making with a more sure measure to attain a specified goal. The fields of public relation in the future will
The global "mindset" that companies must have is defined as "…the ability to develop and interpret criteria for business performance" that are not relying on the "assumptions of a single country, culture or context to implement those criteria appropriately…" (Begley, et al., 2003). Begley and colleagues insist that the "truly globalized corporation" sees globalization as more of a "mind-set" than a "structure" per se (p. 1). The three mind-sets that
They might only be more efficient when externalities are not considered, but in the real world of globalization externalities are important. Understanding what to do about these problems and how to take advantage of the opportunities presented by globalization requires a strong understanding of what globalization is, and even that remains a point of some contention. Works Cited: Higgott, R. & Reich, S. (1998) Globalisation and sites of conflict: Towards definition