Qualitative Content Analysis on the Use of Nuclear Power Essay
Excerpt from Essay :
Decreased Usage of Nuclear Energy: Qualitative-Content Analysis
ADissertation Presentedusing the Qualitative Content-Analysis
inPartial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor ofManagement in Environmental and Social Sustainability
Komi Emmanuel Fiagbe Gbedegan
Caroline WesterhofPH-D Chair
Dr. Daphne DeporresPH-D Committee Member
Dr. Steven Munkeby, PH-D Committee Member
Komi Emmanuel Fiagbe Gbedegan, 2016
A qualitative content analysis will be conducted to explore the phenomenon of decreased usage of nuclear energy at a time when global climate change indicates the need for increased usage of nuclear energy. Qualitative content analysis involves obtained data from existing literature which is evaluated using processes for interpreting contexts and cases. In this qualitative content analysis, the researcher will use a systematic analysis to identify themes and patterns on decreased nuclear energy usage. The researcher compared, contrasted, and classified the content of qualitative data obtained about this phenomenon. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, greater understanding of why nuclear is decreasing rather than increasing is the purpose of this proposed study. This qualitative research proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward. The research will utilize a qualitative content analysis technique to examine the phenomenon of decreased nuclear energy.
Add a Dedication, if desired [Add Acknowledgements]
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures ix
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview/Background 13
Problem Opportunity Statement 15
Purpose Statement 16
Research Question(s) 17
Theoretical Perspectives/Conceptual Framework 18
Significance of the Study 21
Definition of Key Terms 24
General Overview of the Research Design 25
Summary of Chapter One 26
Organization of the Dissertation (or Proposal) 27
Chapter Two: Literature Review 29
Summary of Literature Review
Chapter Three: Methodology 60
Research Traditions 60
Research Question 65
Research Proposition 65
Research Design 66
Population and Sample 66
Sampling Procedure 68
Data Collection 72
Data Analysis 73
Ethical Issues in Research 75
Summary of Chapter Three 75
Chapter Four: Findings 79
Presentation of the Data 79
Presentation and Discussion of Findings 85
Summary of Chapter Four 89
Chapter Five: Conclusions 91
Findings and Conclusions 91
Limitations of the Study 93
Implications for Practice 93
Implications of Study and Recommendations for Future Research 94
Appendix A: Nuclear Energy Market Share Worldwide (source: IAEA, 2015) 108
Appendix B: Nuclear Reactors Operating Worldwide (source: IAEA, 2015) 109
Appendix C: Number of Nuclear Reactors Under Construction Worldwide (source: IAEA, 2015). 110
Table 1 Comparison of Matches for Reasons for Decreased Nuclear Energy Usage
Table 2 Cumulative Frequency for the Factors
Table 3 Public Perception Influences Policymaking
Table 4 Policymaking Influences Public Perception
Table 5 Public Perception is influenced by Nuclear Power Disasters
Table 6 Nuclear Disasters Influence Policymaking
Table 7 Nuclear Energy as a Sustainable Energy Source
Table 8 Cumulative Frequency Table for Nuclear Energy's Sustainability
Table 9 Nuclear Energy's Ability to Address Climate Change Effectively
List of Figures
Figure 1 Conceptual Framework Diagram
Chapter One: Introduction
Global climate change is one of the most pressing issues in the 21st Century that has attracted considerable attention from governments, policymakers, environmentalists, industry experts, and the public. This problem is brought by increased emissions of greenhouse gases from the conventional sources of energy. One of the potential solutions to this issue is nuclear energy, which is energy in the core or nucleus of an atom. Nuclear energy has the potential to resolve global climate change in a sustainable manner as demonstrated by existing research. However, the share of nuclear energy in the global energy mix continues to decline at a time when climate change indicates an increased need for it. As a result, the phenomenon of decreased nuclear energy usage is an issue that should be critically examined. This chapter begins with an overview of this issue, which is followed by problem opportunity statement, purpose statement, research question, hypotheses/propositions and conceptual framework. The other segments in the
chapter include assumptions, significance of the study, delimitations, limitations, definition of terms, general overview of research design, and chapter summary.
Nuclear energy was first harnessed for power in 1954, Located at the Obninsk in scientific city at some 110km outside of Moscow (Josephson, 2000, p.2). At the time, nuclear power was viewed as the energy of the future. Unharnessing the power of the atom, it was thought, was to provide a stable, reliable source of energy for the future. Even at the time, it was known that fossil fuels were not going to be sustainable as an energy source. The use of atomic weapons was essential in wars; at the end of the Second World War, such use has highlighted the value of harnessing the atom nuclear energy, and meeting civilian energy needs. The most technologically advanced societies of that age, the U.S. and USSR, were the leaders in the development of nuclear technology, but they were soon joined by a number of other nations.
Nuclear energy can be described as the energy in the core or nucleus of an atom, which is a small unit that contributes to all matter in the universe. Nuclear energy is derived from nuclear reactions, which are used to produce heat that is most commonly used in steam turbines to generate electricity, especially in a nuclear power station (Josephson, 2000, p.2). According to Remo (2015), nuclear energy, which is utilized in weapons and for generating electricity, has the probability of both destroying life and saving lives on Earth (p.38). As a result, the likelihood of effective use of nuclear energy to save lives as well as for producing a catastrophic thermonuclear war on Earth has contributed to a huge debate and controversy relating to nuclear energy (Josephson, 2002, p.5).
Today, nuclear energy provides for roughly 10% of the world's energy needs (Schneider et al., 2013). There are reactors in 31 countries, for a total of 427 reactors as of 2013 (Schneider et al., 2013). That is seventeen fewer reactors than there were in 2002, and the installed capacity of the industry is at 364 GWe, down from 375 GWe in 2002. Thus, the nuclear power industry is in decline (Schneider et al., 2013). While some of this can be attributed to the Fukushima disaster that took some of Japan's capacity offline, the fact that nuclear energy is not growing is somewhat perplexing (Schneider et al., 2013). Since 2002, the world's collective knowledge of climate change has increased substantially. Many nations around the world made commitments to reduce their carbon emissions in the Kyoto Protocol (UN FCC, 2014).
Yet, despite this, there has been very little new investment in nuclear power. Total capacity has declined as noted above, and given that overall energy production capacity has likely increased in this period, the market share for nuclear power has declined significantly in this period (Schneider et al., 2013). Three-quarters of the decline came from Japan, but the top five other nuclear power generators also decreased their output as well (Schneider et al., 2013). In 1993, nuclear power peaked at 17% of total global energy production but now sits at 10% (World Energy Resources, 2013, p.7). With no major new build programs, the average age of the world's nuclear reactors is at 28 years, with over 190 units having run for over 30 years, and 44 units having run for over 40 years (World Energy Resources, 2013, p.7). There is some new construction, in fourteen countries, with one (the UAE) being a new member of the nuclear power club (World Energy Resources, 2013, p.7). There have been many delays that have stalled progress in potential new members to the nuclear power club, particularly developing world nations (World Energy Resources, 2013, p.7).
While nuclear energy has the potential to resolve global climate change, its share in the global energy mix continues to decline. The development and use of nuclear energy is increasingly declining at a time when global climate change indicates an increased need for this source of power. It's ironic how the world continues to rely on conventional sources of energy, which emit greenhouse gases that cause climate change, while neglecting nuclear energy that can resolve the problem. Therefore, the phenomenon of decreased nuclear energy is an important issue to examine.
Problem Opportunity Statement
As shown in the background section of this chapter, the development of nuclear power plants has stalled in many developing nations. Similarly, many would-be nuclear powers have had trouble getting their reactors built such as Bangladesh, Belarus, Jordan, Lithuania, Poland, Saudi Arabia and Vietnam among them (Schneider et al., 2013, p.7). In established nuclear power countries, there is a lack of investment in adding new capacity (World Energy Resources, 2013, p.7). Where there is…
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