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The transition from pre-conventional to conventional moral development is changing one's view from selfishness to responsibility for others. The transition from conventional to post conventional development is from goodness to truth that "they are people, too." Gilligan's theory supports that there is more than one dimension to moral reasoning, whereas Kohlberg's theory is focused on a male-centered view.
An individual employing problem-focused coping strategies will target the cause of their stress and focus on the problem that is causing the stressful situation. People typically try to learn about the problem and develop skills to manage the situation. Problem-focused coping strategies work best in situations the individual can control, for example, studying for an exam and work-based stressors. In circumstances that are out of an individual's control, such as death and coping with loss, one can use emotion-focused coping strategies. Emotion-focused coping involves reducing stress that is coupled with negative emotional responses such as anxiety, embarrassment, and fear. Such strategies include keeping oneself busy to keep their mind occupied, releasing tension to other people, praying, avoiding the problem, and expecting the worse case scenario. Emotion-focused coping is best used when a situation is out of a person's control, such as disease and terrorist attacks.
Reciprocal socialization is a socialization process where one group complements another, and vice versa, and their exchanging interactions socializes both parties. Reciprocal socialization impacts the family of the adolescent as the parents socialize the adolescent, the adolescent also socializes the parents. Adolescents develop their sense of norms and functions in part by the socialization provided by their parents and family. Parents are impacted by the adolescent's socialization as it influences family decisions and discussions. In these situations, ideas of the adolescent are incorporated into the family dynamic.
A learning disability is a classification used to describe problems that affect the brain's ability to receive, process, analyze, or store information. Interventions to address learning disabilities in adolescence range from alterations with direct instruction and classroom adjustments, to special education. Intervention techniques include highly structured teaching environments and in small learning increments, assessing progress frequently, correcting mistakes immediately, modifying test procedures, alternative assignments to meet the adolescent's needs, educational therapy, and to link intervention activities with family activities.
A host of problems affect adolescents each day, as this a unique time for building world concepts and personal identity. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, four of the major problems affecting the greatest amount of adolescents in the United States are: adolescent pregnancy, substance abuse, runaway youth, and educational/employment deficits.
Approximately one million teenage women become pregnant each year, making it one of the most widespread and costly problems facing American youth. In recent decades, abstinence education has proven to be the least effective intervention method. The most effective intervention method for teen pregnancy involves a balance of sex education and the providing of accessible health and social support services.
Substance abuse among young people is quite significant, and includes the abuse of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, stimulants, sedatives, and other illicit drugs. An incredible 91% of adolescents have admitted to abusing alcohol alone. Intervention methods for adolescent substance abuse include improving self-image and increasing education regarding substance abuse. In addition, adolescents must be educated regarding peer pressure and resistance techniques.
In the U.S., approximately 1.2-1.5 million children and adolescents run away from home each year -- this figure does not reflect children running away from foster care or residential placements. According to the U.S. Department of Health, interventions programs have not been placed, and effective studies have not been conducted.
Education deficits are significant in the U.S. As minorities and those of poor economic status are concentrated in the bottom fifth tier of almost every standardized test. Drop out rates are highest in urban areas; in some cities the chances of a student completing their sophomore year of high school is 50%. Intervention techniques include focusing on reading and mathematics to improve standardized test scores. To reduce dropout rates, execution of youth employment and training programs have proven to be beneficial as they improve employability, and result in wages as a healthy incentive to remain in school.
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The most fundamental theorist in this area is Jean Piaget. Additionally, Piaget demonstrated one of the first scientific movements in the filed, with the utilization of direct observation as the best tool for understanding. (Piaget, 1962, p. 107) Piaget also believes, and his theories reflect that children play a very active and dynamic role in development through interaction with their environment and active role imitation. (Piaget, 1962, p. 159) Sensory-motor
Child Demographics CHILD WELFARE IN REVIEW Financial Status of Children in Welfare - a review conducted in 9 trials on 2,000 participants to determine if financial support to poor families would improve children's health and welfare did not yield sufficient evidence on the financial benefits of intervention (Lucas, 2008). A study on the effectiveness of recent reforms on the chronic problems of the child welfare system in the United States (Westat 2002)
Figure 1 portrays three of the scenes 20/20 presented March 15, 2010. Figure 1: Heather, Rachel, and Unnamed Girl in 20/20 Program (adapted from Stossel, 2010). Statement of the Problem For any individual, the death of a family member, friend, parent or sibling may often be overwhelming. For adolescents, the death of person close to them may prove much more traumatic as it can disrupt adolescent development. Diana Mahoney (2008), with the
Early childhood fatherhood can impact the young adolescent male's life for the rest of his life, assigning him a responsibility that he perhaps never considered taking on when he was being sexually active (p. 95). Being sexually active is, for young adolescent boys, about more than sex. It is also about how the media says that "men," or boys who are going to grow to manhood, should behave, and
Children's Inventory Children's Depression Inventory The Child Depression Inventory (CDI) is a psychological measure designed as a symptom-oriented instrument that assess children's level of depression between the ages of seven and 17 years of age, and was established to evaluate symptomology associated with dysthymic disorder and major depressive disorder (Finch, 1987). The basic form of the Child Depression Inventory consists of a 27 item evaluative tool; however, there is a 10 item
There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors
Psychology Developmental Children's Use of Play Children use play as a way of role-playing and expression. Anxiety expression, mastering of conflict as well as many other developmental benefits are derived from play by children. This paper intends to explore the play of children in relation to the developmental benefits that play provides. Though play children grow in the understanding of not only themselves but of others and the world around them as well