countries interest ( "Political Economical Developments Asian European Systems"), discuss concepts: 1) Explain detail political systems countries differ; 2) discuss legal systems countries differ; 3) explain determines level economic development a nation; 4) discuss examples macro-political economic taking place worldwide; 5) analyze transition economies moving market-based systems.
Political and Economic developments in Eastern Europe after the fall of the Berlin Wall -- Transition
The end of the Cold War brought about some of the most important economic and political changes of recent history. It threw Eastern Europe countries into a historical disarray that is for some to this day rather difficult to grasp and deal with. For this assignment two Eastern countries have been chosen for analysis and comparison: Romania and the Republic of Moldova, its North East neighbor. These two countries were picked for comparison because of two main reasons. One of them is related to the historical background the two countries share (at one point at the beginning of the 20th century they were a single country) and the different paths they took from a political, economic, social, and cultural point-of-view. At the same time, both these countries, at the moment of the fall of communism were seen as countries in transition. Today, Romania is member of the European Union since 2007, whereas Moldova is yet to even have an envisaged date of talks opening with the EU or any international organization with this mission.
1) why and how the political systems of Romania and Moldova differ
First and foremost it must be pointed out that the two countries had up to a point since the end of the First World War until the beginning of the Second, the same political organization because they were part of the same state, Romania. Following the beginning of the Second World War, the Russian influence over the Moldavian part took its toll and two separate states were eventually determined by the Russian occupation. The Cold War saw both countries under Russian influence, yet Moldova, given its proximity to the U.S.S.R., felt the influence more powerfully.
The two political systems in theory and in structure do not differ. Both countries are based on a parliamentarian republican system. However the two countries differ in terms of the applicability of the system. More precisely, it must be pointed out the role of the political parties after the fall of communism in 1989. In this sense, in Romania, immediately after the 1989 Revolution, a coalition was formed, a Salvation Front. By comparison, in Moldova there was no such initiative. "The communists had been the ruling party in the former Soviet state for more than a decade after the fall of the Soviet Union from 1998 until 2009" (European Forum for Democracy and solidarity, 2013). Therefore it must be underlined the fact that when it had the chance to break away from the Russian influence, Moldova failed to do so and chose as ruling party the communist oriented forces. This approach however determined the way in which Moldavian politics would be conducted for more than a decade.
By comparison, in the Romanian case, the political experience was different in the sense that there were more contacts with the Western world than the Moldavian part had. The initiatives to join the European Union and NATO were made visible immediately after the fall of the Berlin Wall and soon after an attempt to stabilize the country from a political and economic point took effect. Therefore, Romania signed the Association Agreement with the European Union in 1995, the organizational framework which allows for the accession negotiations to take place. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the European Union in January 2007.
The Moldavian government is yet to register real chances related to the accession to the European Union. Moreover, "Moldova is one of the poorest countries in Europe, unemployment is high, and the country is heavily dependent upon remittances from thousands of Moldovans working abroad. A large part of the Moldovan population is Romanian-speaking, although there are also Russian and Ukrainian minorities. Moldova currently aspires to join the European Union, and has implemented the first three-year Action Plan within the framework of the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP). However, the possibility that Moldova becomes a serious candidate to be a European member state is slim. This is partly due to the deterrent political cooperation within the government and the most dominant and urgent domestic conflict over the pro-Russian breakaway region Transnistria that must be resolved before Moldova can strengthen its ties with the European Union." (European Forum for Democracy and solidarity, 2013).
2) how the legal systems of countries differ;
The legal systems of the two countries do not differ in structure, but rather in the way in which they actually function. The Romanian side, as part of the European Union is verified and constantly controlled to have an independent judicial system. The "Co-operation and Verification Mechanism" of the European Union "looked at the sustainability and irreversibility of the reforms put in place" in terms of the judicial reform and the independence of the justice system (European Commission, 2013). By comparison the Moldavian part does not have such a verification mechanism and the situation of the legal system cannot be fully ascertained.
3) explain what determines the level of economic development of a nation;
In general situations, the level of economic development in one country or another depends on the resources available, whether they refer to the natural resources, the human capital, the historical background, or the political and geopolitical perspective the country is positioned.
At the same time there are several aspects related to the development of a nation that cannot be fully controlled by the respective state. For instance, natural calamities, although the magnitude of the effects can be prevented by an improvement in the protection mechanisms, the actual happening of the catastrophe cannot be prevented and can destroy entire areas of a country, as it has been the case with Indonesia some years back.
In the cases under analysis, there are certain regions of both countries where the development of the community simply cannot happen out of natural reasons. Both sides of the border are poor areas of the country with a climate that makes it impossible in the winter to allow people to even get out of their houses and in the summer the heat is so unbearable that the crops are damaged leaving people with insufficient food. With these aspects in mind that region is one of the poorest in Europe and there is little that can be done, except for massive affluxes of capital that would determine improvements in the housing systems in the winter and irrigations in the summer. However, unfortunately, neither country has the necessary financial resources to provide such investments.
4) the macro-political and economic changes taking place worldwide
At the moment there are significant macro economic changes taking place at the global level. These include a shift in the way in which trade is conducted. The Doha Round of negotiations that is to this day, a decade later, still without a resolution represents one of the best examples in this sense. This is largely due to the fact that there are increased changes at the level of third world countries, developing states, and developed countries. The focus is no longer only on the needs of the big countries, but also on what developing countries such as India, China, Brazil, have to say as they have increased their position in the world economy.
5) how transition economies are moving towards market-based systems
Taking the example of Romania and Moldova, these two countries have taken different paths in the transition to the market economy and the result is visible. According to studies conducted, there are several key aspects in making…