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Ferrey, S. (2010). The Failure of international global warming regulation to promote needed renewable energy. Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, 37(1), 67-126. Retrieved from GreenFILE database.

Ferrey's article reviews international standards for global warming reduction and claims that the current regulations and suggestions do not address the need for renewable energies. The work claims that without this aspect of the regulations and suggestions being adopted by the Kyoto protocols the plan will ultimately not answer for this significant need, which could in part be why the U.S. did not sign the Kyoto protocols. Currently the researcher claims the system only offers limitations for fossil fuel consumption but does not offer or mandate significant interests in renewable energy sources and therefore is only a one sided mandate system. This then leaves all the answers to these questions entirely up to the nations involved. These nations are left with the burden then of using less energy with no replacements being offered as acceptable to replace them. The impact of this one sided mandate is according to the researcher then a completely one sided and unusable system that will not likely be effective, especially in nations without significant scientific focus on such technologies and alternatives. Ferrey stresses that technologies for renewable energy exists today and are being perfected by science almost daily and unless the international community demands that they be used to replace fossil fuel energy production on a large scale the international protocols for fossil fuel use reduction will likely fail.

Kaygusuz, K. (2009). The role of hydropower for sustainable energy development. Energy Sources Part B: Economics, Planning & Policy, 4(4), 365-376. doi:10.1080/15567240701756889.

Kayagusuz discusses the role of hydropower, an existing and highly utilized form of renewable power, in the future of renewable energy production. There has been an enduring global debate regarding large damns for the production of renewable energy for a host of reasons. Kaygusuz discusses some of those reasons not the least of which are the social, land and water use issues that are altered significantly when big damns are constructed. The concern for Kaygusuz is that the amount energy used in the world has increased substantially in the last century and will continue to rise, not the least in part to expansion of energy use in developing nations. The author contends that answering many of these questions including how the hydropower industry could mitigate disasters such as the utter loss of water use in certain areas and/or the reduction of livability and lack of energy production. Because hydropower technology can answer many of these issues, with proper planning and implementation it should continue to be a big part of renewable energy production. Kaygusuz stresses that the U.S. And other developed nations with significant current production of hydropower should serve as an example for both the good and bad of hydropower and allow developing nations to reap the benefits and rewards of years of know how regarding hydropower production.

Knudsen, J. (2010). Integration of Environmental Concerns in a Trans-Atlantic Perspective: The Case of Renewable Electricity. Review of Policy Research, 27(2), 127-146. doi:10.1111/j.1541-1338.2009.00434.x.

Knudsen discusses how the U.S. compares to other nations in its assessment of renewable energy production as a fundamental answer to global climate change. The work compares six New England U.S. states in their promotion of renewable energy as a change agent in the reduction of global climate change. The comparison is to European Nordic nations. The findings are that the six U.S. states studied do not causally link renewable energy production with climate change issues and that the European Nordic comparison does. The author sites that the EU top down structure for assessing the causal factors of global climate change and answering it with renewable energy as a direct link to change is more effective in making people and policy reflective of this real connectivity. The article speaks directly to the fact that the U.S. has been relatively fractured in its connection of climate change to renewable energy because of its fundamental states rights structure but also because the U.S. population has been effectively sold renewable energy as an economic and security issue, with the potential for real savings as well as the benefit of being more energy independent from destabilized nations. The environments (climate change) aspect of renewable energy marketing in the U.S. is almost tertiary to these other two aspects. In other words the marketing of renewable energy has focused more on individuals saving money, because American's love to save money (at least in their minds) and because the social marketing comes in the wake of direct U.S. involvement in the middle east oil producing region.

Lindl, T. (2009). Letting Solar Shine: An Argument to Temper the Over-the-Fence Rule. Ecology Law Quarterly, 36(4), 851-892. Retrieved from GreenFILE database.

Lindl reviews a law in California called the over the fence rule where solar energy production is limited in the way it is distributed. The law states that a solar producer cannot provide excess energy to any neighboring properties. This according to Lindl is and investment choking policy that stunt the development of renewable energy and its distribution throughout California. The rule is as Lindl stresses the result of powerful Power Company lobbies who demand protection from real competition in the energy market, supposedly protect consumers from unfair energy practices and promote grid reliability. Lindl contends that these justifications are outmoded and do not in any way justify the rule. The author contends that if the rule was eliminated there would be more non-traditional renewable power investment in California and that this type of rule is fundamentally harmful tot the development of renewable power structures in California. Lindl also notes that the kind of energy power structure that was in place prior to the adoption of this rule is no longer in place and that the system is, largely on consumer demand, seeking out better ways to generate and therefore provide renewable energy to its customers. Collaboration between traditional power companies and traditional suppliers of renewable solar energy has much improved as has the number of households who independently have converted to all or partial solar power generation. As an aspect of the over the fence rule consumers who generate excess power cannot sell it to the power company but instead they can reduce their bill to close to zero. Lindl calls for the immediate change of this rule to allow for the continued collaborative production of more solar arrays, through investment and for consumers to be able to sell power to the power grid.

Martin, M. (2010). The Great Green Grid. E - the Environmental Magazine, 21(4), 22-29. Retrieved from GreenFILE database.

Martin discusses the readiness to launch a smart grid in the U.S. The current U.S. grid according to Martin has not changed for more than 100 years and it boasts a one way transmission that does not account for usage need or any fluctuation in the amount of energy created to feed it. The power supply system, using current grid technology then has to produce a greater amount of energy to meet needs in a continual manner. In other words the current grid system causes the power suppliers to have to make enough power to feed peaks in energy use rather than allowing it to respond to real time demand. A smart grid according the Martin might also make it possible for two way transmission, so consumers who produce excess renewable energy can return it to the grid. Martin also notes that this would be a striking opportunity for renewable like solar and wind to be hooked in to the existing grid, rather than the current system where energy has to be piped in through complicated add on technology. The article though it would seem a bit sunny as it does not fully discuss the potential barriers to smart grid creation the number one being cost, it does clearly explain the potential of such a system where according to Martin consumers would have greater control over individual costs as they would be able to better determine what they are willing to pay by actual rather than historical usage data. It also offers the example on a relatively small scale in Boulder CO, where smart grid technology has been implemented city wide. The example offers consumer information about how they can save on energy costs by choosing to use high energy sucking appliances during off peak hours when the grid might be supplying more power than the system needs and therefore the energy costs less to provide. Martin also stresses that consumer education will be essential to successful roll out of smart grid technology.

Sayre, R. (2010). Microalgae: The potential for carbon capture. Bioscience, 60(9), 722-727. doi:i: 10.1525/bio.2010.60.9.9.

Sayre in this article discusses the science of microalgae capture of CO2 emissions. The work is a comprehensive research article describing how microalgae has the ability to transport…[continue]

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