revolves under the presidential leadership from its formation. The presidential candidate has to undergo an electoral process so that they are declared winners. The nation has faced challenges like the world wars and even the civil wars due to differences in ideologies. The paper is going to cover U.S. political campaign of President Woodrow Wilson in 1916 as well as how this campaign differs from that of 1912? U.S. political campaign of President Lincoln in 1864 and its strongest factor. In what ways are the Wilson election and the Lincoln elections similar? How does the threat of World War I affect Wilson's campaign? And how did the threat of Civil War affect Lincoln's campaign.
U.S. political campaign of President Woodrow Wilson in 1916
Campaign in Europe was dominated by fighting. The campaign for Woodrow Wilson's re-election was based on a pledge of continued neutrality in the Great War within Europe. He was using a campaign slogan "He Kept Us out of war" which was highly popular, Leary, William M., Jr. (1967). A program of higher mobilization and preparedness was promoted by Hughes, a section of pro-Wilson newspaper alleged that, in any case Hughes was elected, he had the intension of involving the American into war. Since there was a fruitful pressure on Germans from Wilson so that to stop submarine war without restriction, it proves to be hard for Hughes to invade the peace platform of Wilson, Link, Arthur Stanley (1954).
More criticism came from Hughes towards the intervention of military within Mexico, in which U.S. backed many factions in a civil war. Other attacks which Hughes applied against Wilson were; due to the fact that Wilson backed many pro-labor laws like shortening the working days to just eight hours from the basis that they had effect to the interest of the business, Link, Arthur Stanley (1965). Nevertheless, these criticisms had less impact, more so to the factory workers who gave that support to these laws. Whatever assisted Hughes was the famous former President Theodore Roosevelt, as well the reason that the republican were the greater in number within the nation during that time. There was a major mistake which was committed by Hughes in California, prior to the election, Hughes carried out his campaign all over the state. At the time he was in Long Beach, he made his stay in the same hotel as Hiram Johnson (the states' powerful Republican Governor. Hughes might have not been having idea of the presence of Johnson within the hotel, and he appeared not to greet Johnson in the hotel suite. Due to this, John considered this as intentional snub and did not give his full support to Hughes. There was extreme narrow loss by Hughes in California which might have been caused by this.
The night of election, Hughes was leading within the states of Eastern and Midwestern, which made various newspaper to announce him as the winner, though Wilson turn down the idea of conceding, and while results from the West as well as South came in, Wilson made a comeback and at the end he was the one that took the lead, Pusey, Merlo J. (1951). California proved to be the major state since the vote were won 3,800 against million casted. This proved to be one of the closest electoral votes within the history of American having just 266 remaining vote for a win. From a famous legend of 1916 campaign, indicates that Hughes retired to bed while having in mind that he had already won during the night of election.
The next morning when he was tried to be telephoned about the sudden change, an unknown identity answered the telephone and informed the reporter that the President is asleep, the reporter answered that when he wakes up, he is to be informed that he was not the President. Even though Wilson had the lead in three states he lost in 1912 (Utah, Washington and California) Milkis, Sidney M (2009). Not only Wilson is the first President to win re- election by a small margin in his second election as compared to first election but James Madison also with a small margin, won the re-election as compared to his first election, Lovell, S.D. (1980).
United States Presidential election of 1864
During the election of 1864 in the United States, Abraham Lincoln was the one re-elected as the president. Under the National Union, Lincoln ran against his former top civil war general, George B. McClellan, who was a democrat candidate. Even though McClellan was the "peace candidate" he did not individually believed in the platform of his party, Harold M. Dudley (1932). Though at the time of his 1864 election, when the civil war was still going on, people did not view Lincoln as the majestic figure like the way he was. At some point, most of the people from the North were fed up with the civil war. A number of them knew that the civil war was going to last for a few weeks only, yet 1864 was the third year ever seen of bloodiest affair within America.
Most of the people had anticipation of removing Lincoln, since they argued that Lincoln did not handle the job correctly. Main military victories were not present from the North as well as inflation which were caused by high cost of war. Lincoln was experiencing the fear that sometimes he was not going to be re-elected for the second time. "Lincoln's Shoes" which was a political cartoon, facilitated people to think critically, where they asked themselves that "if not Lincoln for presidency then who else? The demonstrations from the cartoon indicated that Lincoln was larger as compared to life persona, as he emerges as a sleeping giant in background of the cartoon. At the foreground, people seems to be smaller than as they appear as compared to Lincoln and they are trying to measure his shoes which seems to be very taller as compared to all of them, Nelson, Larry E.(1980).
The intensions of the cartoon were to poke fun at people who were targeting the presidential seat. The cartoon had their significance since they portrayed that there was nobody who could take the country out of the civil war except Lincoln. Though people believed that he mishandles the war, no apparent and clear alternative was there to Lincoln. This attributed to the re-election of Lincoln, and this shows a bigger theme to the American presidency. It portrays that rarely does the incumbent president loses at the times of war. Among the Lincolns slogan which were famous was "Don't Change Horses in the middle of the stream"
Nevertheless, most of the military as well as political events contributed to the Lincoln's re-election inevitable. Firstly, democrats were supposed to confront the relentless internal strain in the party at the Democratic National Convention. The campaign of McClellan was inconsistence and difficult due to the contradictions of the political compromises which were made at the Democratic National Convention. Secondly, Fremont's campa andign was influenced by Democratic National Convention. Within the Democratic platform, Fremont was appalled, which is described as "union with Slavery." Because of discussion with Cochrane plus his supporters, in September 1864, Fremont took a decision of withdrawal out of the race. He indicated that it was very important to win the civil war, even though he still believed that Lincoln could never go far away, the greatest necessity was the defeat of McClellan. A war democrat called General Cochrane accepted and then withdraws; Fremont stopped his political campaign and immediately he brokered a political deal where Lincoln removed U.S. postmaster general from office. After his withdrawal from the presidential election, the chances of McClellan victory faded, Paludan, Phillip Shaw (1994).
Thirdly, since there was the fall of Atlanta on September 2, a question that Union military victory was close at hand and inevitable was no longer in existence. And finally there was mobilization by the Union Party on the full strength of War Democrats and the Republicans under the label Union having the slogan "Don't change horses in the middle of a stream" This was energized when the emancipation was being made the central issue by Lincoln, then GOP parties of the state emphasized the perfidy of the Copperheads. The strongest factor was the civil war which people were fed up of, since it lasted not as the way they expected, Randall, James G. And Richard N.(19550),
This election was somehow not the same as the previous election of 1912, where the 1912 elections were made of splitting of the Republicans leading to an easy loss to their opponent while in 1916, they had to come together and this made them to win the election. Economy in terms of businesses was put forward as a campaign tool for 1912, while coming out of the war was the main focused as a tool for the campaign. The elections for 1912 left out women, Howland, Harold (July 2001.