This researcher obtained a majority of the relevant, scholarly research through Questia, which advertises itself as the world's largest online library.
During the third chapter of this research effort, the methodology segment, this researcher relates techniques utilized in the Literature Research Methodology to manipulate information which later contributed to the verdict of the hypothesis for this study. Information related to implementing and retrieving the bullying questionnaire is shared during the second part of this chapter.
This researcher relates findings retrieved from analyzing information/data accumulated during the literature review, along with data collected from the bullying questionnaire in the fourth chapter of the study.
A number of relevant figures and tables are also presented in chapter four.
During the final chapter, findings from the analyses are discussed. This researcher also presents conclusions regarding the validity of the hypothesis for research project. This researcher also reflects upon this research project's aim and objectives, initially presented in this study's first chapter. At the end of this learning experience, recommendations for future study relating to bullying are also presented.
Aims and Objectives
To utilize the mixed research method, along with exploring and examining components relating to bullying in the workplace.
To thoroughly research and investigate currently, available literature related to bullying, per se.
In order to secure information relevant bullying in the workplace obtain the goals attain objectives created for this research effort, this researcher initially determined to examine a minimum of 25 sources. Plans for this retrieving information also included researching implementing the bullying questionnaire, administered to Objective Two:
Through the implementation of a bullying questionnaire, identify and analyze specific components which contribute to bullying in the workplace.
To reach the goal for objective two, this researcher scheduled specific times for employees to complete the questionnaire,
In addition, this researcher also scheduled particular times to analyze data from completed questionnaires.
Combine information data retrieved from the literature review and completed questionnaire to determine the impact of bullying in the workplace.
Using the methodology related in chapter three, relevant information "connects" to contribute to answering not only questions proposed for consideration by this study, but also, this researcher expects, consider more individuals to question: what can be done to counter bullying, a serious, potentially deadly "disorder" in the workplace
Ultimately, the realization of this study's aim and objectives materialize as expected, from the start of this research effort, and confirms the value of studies such as this one to contribute to fewer and fewer individuals answering yes to the question proposed at the beginning of this chapter: "Do you bully people or have you done so in the past?" (Peyton, 2003, p. 7)
The following figures (1-4) reflect various maps of Bangkok, Thailand. This researcher relates the significance of presenting these maps during the final chapter of this research effort.
The workplace can serve as a microcosm for global peace initiatives.
The many facets of workplace violence provide various lessons for peacemaking.
There are a variety of types and causes of workplace violence.
There are also many techniques for dealing with workplace violence.
Modern management practices parallel the values that are conducive to peace.
Corporate structures that promote trust, participation, and dignity are transportable to the local, national, and global markets for peace."
Significance of Literature Review
Any literature review proves vital to a research project, and as Zollers, and Callahan (2003) note that the workplace, "can serve as a microcosm for global peace initiatives." This researcher additional proposes that literature can also "serve as a microcosm," relating a world of valuable information for research purposes.
The literature review segment of this study delved into the realm of workplace bullying, and forged through a number of sections included in the massive amount of available information/data. This chapter relates a sampling of current, available knowledge on bullying in the workplace, a seriously, potentially "life and death," current global concerns, which ultimately contributed to the determination of this study's hypothesis.
Review of Research Questions and Hypothesis During the course of this review, along with questions proposed constituting the bullying questionnaire this researcher utilized the following research questions and/or considerations as a compass for the primary direction of this study.
1. How prevalent is bullying in today's workplace?
2. What forms of bullying are demonstrated in workplace?
3. In what ways do bullying impact workers and the workplace?
The hypothesis, as presented in the introduction of this study, reports: When employers investigate, identify and implement positive counters to workplace bullying, then employers, bullying victims and bullies may, in turn, be empowered to become more productive. Information retrieved, answering the research questions, along with the determination of the hypothesis, in turn, contributed to the "life" of this study. This literature review explored information relating to the prevalence of bullying in the workplace, along with a number of common and uncommon forms through which bullying behavior may be demonstrated. Specific ways bullying impacts the workplace, along with the impact upon workers, including victims, witnesses, and bullies were also examined.
Bullying, per se
Bullying, according to Watson (2003, p. 241) constitutes a term:
sometimes used in a more general way to refer to a 'middle class'. Bullying at work - Repeated actions towards people at work which have the effect of humiliating and mentally distressing them." Workplace bullying (a term used especially in Great Britain), Vardi & Weitz (2004, p. 70) purport, "can be defined as repeated, unreasonable behavior directed toward an employee or group of employees that creates a risk to the health and safety of the targets. Within this definition, unreasonable means behavior that a reasonable person, having an awareness of the situation, would willingly engage in to victimize, humiliate, undermine, or threaten another individual or group of individuals such as colleagues or clients."
One Research Project in the following abbreviated excerpts from "the most extensive research project on mobbing thus far... carried out in Sweden," Leymann (2000) findings regarding frequencies, gender, age, number of bullies (mobbers), occupations, long-term effects and early international comparisons. (See Appendix B)
Frequencies: "...Presuming a mean duration of 30 years in the labor market, the individual's risk of being subjected to mobbing is 25%, i.e. one out of every four employees entering the labor market will risk being subjected to at least one period of mobbing of at least six months' duration during his or her working career."
Gender: "Men (45%) and women (55%) are subjected in roughly equal proportions.... The study shows that 76% of the subjected men were mobbed by other men, whereas only 3% were attacked by women. Only 21% of the men were subjected by both sexes. On the other hand, 40% of the subjected women were mobbed by other women. 30% were attacked by men and another 30% by both sexes...The explanation as to why men are mainly mobbed by other men and women by other women should be interpreted as a structural consequence of work life, at least in Sweden...."
Age: "The groups 21 to 30 years and 31 to 40 years are overrepresented, compared with the three groups 41 to 50, 51 to 60 and over 61 years old. These differences are not significant. There was no gender difference."
The number of mobbers [bullies]: "Approximately one third of the mobbed individuals were attacked by only one other person. Slightly more than 40% were subjected to attacks by two to four persons.... The results of the Swedish studies shows that there may be quite a number of 'bystanders'."
Occupations: "...Results are not significant due to the fact that the sample consisting of 2.400 individuals was still not large enough for studies of subgroups. Nevertheless,... tendencies, show..."
Long-term effects: "...Ten to twenty percent) seems to contract serious illnesses or commit suicide....about every 6th to 15th officially noted suicide in the Swedish statistics (in all about 1.800 every year) may be caused by this kind of workplace problem." Leymann (2000)
Early international comparisons: Thus far, direct comparisons of studies cannot be carried out since studies from different countries are still too few."
During the late 1980s, several workplace homicides, at that time not noted as a major societal concern, were highly publicized. By the early 1990s, however, potential for workplace violence and/or murder captured the country's attention, consequently contributing employers' and managers' concerns. "As employers considered this problem, researchers reported that the threat of workplace murder, although highly publicized, was just "the tip of the iceberg." (Baron and Neuman, 1996; Neuman and Baron, 1998, cited by Lucero and Allen, 2006)
Currently, aggressive behaviors, including bullying, sexual harassment, intimidation, verbal abuse, sabotage, vandalism, and fighting continue to constitute major concerns in the workplace.