Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Research Paper:
Kahneman & Schwarz (2009) confirm that the link between advanced income and happiness is fantasy. The two researchers further ascertained that inheriting a lot of money or earning as anticipated does not make one happy. This is because once one is in possession of huge sum of money; one does not necessarily spend it to make him/her happy.
The third hypothesis point out that education and income increases the level of happiness in a person's life. Studies carried between 1965 and 1994 confirmed that education and income level are causes and correlates of happiness. Education and occupation correlate with subjective well-being.
The research method for quantitative approach will be based on questions and hypotheses that are subject to rigorous testing under controlled conditions. This paradigm is strappingly linked with a quantitative research instrument, which include the highly structured questionnaires and statistical analysis. Quantitative research assists the researcher in affirming the number value to the occurrence being tested (Cooper & Schindler, 2006). In this regard, employment of quantitative research analysis in this particular research will facilitate investigation of the link between happiness, cultural values, educational levels and income level.
The research will take a quantitative perspective where experiential means will be used exclusively for the purpose of findings. The population for this research will involve 25 high schools, colleges and university students. The sample will also involve 25 employees from these institutions thereby forming a study sample of 50 participants. A population from learning institutions will aid the research in establishing whether their levels of education, income levels and cultural values and practices lead to greater happiness or subjective-well-being. The research will utilize a random sample of 25 students and 25 employees from different educational institutions. Random sampling gives every member of the population being studied a prospect to be included in the sample. The response rate will be viewed as a representative sample of the population. Random sampling will help in achievement of unbiased findings, and it is the simplest form of sampling that gives all the respondents an equivalent prospect of being included in the study sample.
Data collection instrument will entail close-ended questionnaires. These data instrument will contain questions and their dichotomous choices that each respondent will be required to fill. The dichotomous choices provided in the questionnaires will include a) Very happy, b) Pretty happy, c) Not too happy. The use of this type of data collection instruments is effective for both the researcher and respondents. This is because a respondent is only required to answer the questions from the list of provided choices and no additional information, which could lead to misapprehensions, is needed. The questionnaire will contain details on gender, occupational, age, educational level, cultural beliefs and religion and income level. The questions that will be provided in the questionnaires will include:
1. How would rate your happiness and educational level
2. How would rate your happiness and your income level
3. How would rate your happiness and your religion
This research adopts use of both primary and secondary data. The researchers will consult a wide body of literature to gather secondary data. In this view, secondary data will be collected from available literature, which include books, research articles and institutional websites. Primary Data for this research will be collected from highly structured questionnaires. The research will make the most of one subordinate to transmit and receive emails from the participants. The researcher will code the collected data and subject it to quantitative analysis using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) in order to draw convincing conclusions.
Data collected from the survey instruments and data collected from available literature on happiness will be analysed through SPSS Predictive Analytics Software. To confirm the questions, analysis will include validation, descriptive and inferential statistics (Muijs, 2011). The data analysis procedure will generate data about the participants, their cultural background, values, beliefs, their extent of education and their income level.
In order to determine relevant conclusions in relation to the collected data, it was essential to subject the findings for quantitative analysis through Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). This is essential in the realization of conclusive findings with reference to the confirmation of the hypotheses concerning the research questions on happiness. The findings of the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) are as follows: in the examination of the relationship between happiness and education, about 2039 participants took place. According to the results of this analysis, about 41.6% of the participants noted a relationship between happiness and education. This compares to overwhelming 58.4% that indicated no relationship between the variables.
The first hypothesis indicates that there is a close link between happiness and socio-demographic variables, which include income level, education level, culture, values and beliefs. The second hypothesis indicate that there is no relationship between happiness and socio-demographic variables which include, income level, education level, culture, values and beliefs. The third hypothesis point out that education and income increases the level of happiness in a person's life. In the examination of this hypothesis, levels of education (LT high, high school, junior college, bachelor, and graduate) were measured in relation to happiness on three categories: very happy, happy, and not happy.
The results of the exercise indicated mixed reflections because high school level reflected the highest percentages in comparison with the other levels of education. This is through projection of 49.7, 52.4, and 49.0% for the 3 categories of independent variable. This is a reflection that there is relationship between the happiness and socio demographic variables. The analysis the chi-square test is a reflection of the need to accept the first hypothesis and reject the alternative hypothesis in the second aspect. In order to confirm the rationale for accepting the null hypothesis, levels of income were also expressed against the independent variable on the three categories. According to the results, there is increase in the level of happiness as the income increases. This is evident through the massive 60% for income above $25,000. This confirms the null hypothesis thus the need to accept its proposition for the relationship between happiness and socioeconomic factors. It is also essential to understand the role of religion affiliation on the rate of happiness. According to the data analysis, majority of Protestants are happy because of their religious affiliation.
In the examination of influence of education on the concept of happiness, there was critical evaluation of the dependent variables and independent variables. In this case, happiness was the aspect of the dependent variable under the influence of three factors: very happy, happy, and not very happy. In the execution of the exercise, 2039 students participated under different levels: LT high school, junior college, bachelor, and graduate. About 42% of the students confirmed the relationship between the concept of happiness and the level of education. This is mainly associated with influence of factors such as achievement, favorable environment, performance, and interactive environment.
About 13% of the LT high school children who participated in the research exercises were very happy. This is quite lower than the 46% of the students at level 1 high school. This is mainly because of the childhood development timeline because at this stage, children have the opportunity to interact with the environment effectively and efficiently. This indicates that they enjoy playing time with other children thus making them very happy with the situation. This is an expression of the quality interaction with the environment and playing activities. At junior college level, the level of happiness is quite low in comparison to the other lower levels. This is mainly because of the volume of work, lack of achievement, and stressful living conditions facing the students as they tackle their educational pursuits. Approximately one fifth of the bachelor students who participated in the exercise are very happy. This is mainly because of the achievements in their development, growth, and knowledge pursuit. The percentage level of very happy reduces at the graduate level.
This might be because of inability to achieve the goals and objectives of the knowledge pursuit thus affecting their level of happiness. Graduates also do not express high level of happiness because of pretence. Most of these students think and believe that expression of happiness is intimidating. They associate happiness with small children and rich people. Majority of the students at LT high school level are not happy. This is a reflection of inability to associate with the new environment and draw satisfaction from relevant interactions. Majority of high school students are also not too happy. This is because of lack of the opportunity to exploit their options. The students under this level of education operate under strict regulations at home and school thus unhappy about these levels of interactions. As they move to higher education levels, the level of unhappiness reduces drastically. This is because most of the individuals enjoy their academic achievements, freedom, and various experiences contributing to cases of happiness.…[continue]
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