Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from essay:
IMPROVEMENT OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: Case study: GHANA EDUCATION SYSTEM
RESEARCH FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE IMPROVEMENT OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES:
GHANA EDUCATION SYSTEM
The need for improvements in the educational system in Ghana today is greater than ever before, but there are some sophisticated research methods available that can help educational reformers in Ghana accomplish these important goals. In order to determine which research approach is superior for this purpose, or combination of methodologies, an understanding of what is involved in the Ghanaian educational system is in order. In terms of educational expansion as measured by the enrollment of both male and female school age children at all levels, virtually all African countries have accomplished remarkable results since the 1960s and 1970s, yet profound problems remain (Assie-Lumumba, 2000). According to Morrison (2001), the level of education provided to young children in Ghana today is a direct legacy of many events that relate to the country's colonial past and subsequent independence. For example, in 1957, Ghana became the first West African country to receive its independence from colonial rule; further, during the early years of its independence, the government recognized the importance of education during the early years in the lives of Ghanaian children. Further, in 1989, Ghana became the first country to ratify the United Nations' Rights of the Child; later, in 1998, the government passed The Children's Act (Act 560), which added additional strength to the laws on children's rights, justice, and welfare (Morrison, 2001).
Today, almost half of Ghana's 19.5 million citizens are younger than 15 years and the most recent census data reported that about 16.5% of the population is under the age of 6 years; unfortunately, there remains a paucity of educational services for students across the board, but the need is most severe for very young children, a problem that is even worse in most rural areas of the country. In fact, today, just 12% or so of the nation's very young children have access to early care and education (Morrison, 2001), and the literacy rate (defined as those age 15 years and over who can read and write) for the total population of Ghana is just 74.8% (82.7% and 67.1% for males and females respectively) (Ghana, 2005). Nevertheless, this literacy rate is still one of the highest in tropical Africa today, and again, by comparison, Ghana has a better educational system than any of its immediate neighbors; this achievement has been enormously costly though.
This is not to say, though, that the educational legacy of Ghana is recent; indeed, the first recorded educational program for children in Ghana was the Elmina Castle School founded in 1745; however, beginning in 1823, Western missionaries began a program of proselytization in an effort to convert the native Ghanian population to Christianity. Much like the problems facing the country in the 21st century, the colonial Ghanaian government also lacked sufficient resources to fund a national system of education and turned over the responsibility for education to these Christian missionaries, a responsibility they readily embraced for they believed it was in keeping with their theological tenets (McWilliam, 1959 cited in Morrison, 2001). According to this author, the first mission on record was the Basel Mission Society; this facility featured some kindergartens that were offered with the "primary one classes" (these are the Ghanaian equivalent to first grade classes in the United States) by 1843 (Morrison, 2001).
Following their independence from the UK in 1957, Ghana reassumed responsibility for its national education system through the passage of the Education Act of 1961; this act made preschools the responsibility of the Ministry of Education. Thereafter, any Ghanaian facility that offered an educational program for young children (with or without fees) was required to register with the Ministry; this Act also established free basic compulsory education for children beginning with primary 1 (age 6 years) through to primary 6 (Morrison, 2001). This system was introduced in April 1974, when the Ghanaian government began implementation of a new educational system comprised of a pre-primary cycle for ages 4 to 6 years; a basic first cycle, including six years of primary education and three years of junior secondary; and a second cycle of variable length. The second cycle is followed by secondary vocational or commercial programs or, in the alternative, to senior secondary university preparatory courses or other third-cycle courses in high-level polytechnics and specialized institutions (Boateng & Fage, 2005).
According to Ernest Amano Boateng and John D. Fage (2005), the first educational cycle is both free and compulsory; during the first three years, educational services are delivered in the predominant local language, with provision for education in at least one other Ghanaian language and English, the latter being the language of instruction from the fourth year of the primary cycle (Boateng & Fage, 2005). In addition, teacher training and technical education are approximately comparable to secondary education; however, these facilities tend to attract students who are not planning on attending a university. Today, university education is provided at three primary Ghanaian institutions:
The University of Ghana at Legon. This university is located near Accra, and was established as a university college in 1948 and granted full university status in 1961.
The University of Science and Technology at Kumasi. This institution was established in 1951 and was granted full university status in 1961; the Tarkwa School of Mines is affiliated with the University of Science and Technology and offers diploma courses in mining and related subjects.
The University of Cape Coast. This university was established in 1962 specifically for the training of science teachers and was afforded full university status in 1972 (Boateng & Fage, 2005).
All of these institutions are financed by the government; in fact, there are no private universities in Ghana today (Boateng & Fage, 2005).
Cost-saving initiatives that affected social expenditures during the late 1980s resulted in drastic reductions in student subsidies for food and accommodation in third-cycle institutions, but enrollment in all schools, particularly in secondary schools, has increased significantly since Ghana achieved independence (Boateng & Fage, 2005). For instance, there are a number of private schools at both elementary and secondary levels today; however, the number of available places in second- and third-cycle institutions, particularly in universities, remains far short of the demand from qualified applicants. "Despite the heavy national expenditure on education and the large school population, Ghana still has a relatively low literacy level by world standards. Thanks to the extensive use of the sound and visual media, however, illiteracy is not as serious a handicap as it formerly was. English is widely spoken, especially in the urban areas" (emphasis added) (Boateng & Fage, 2005, p. 17). To help address the lack of educational services in the country's rural areas, Maria Gonzalez de Asis (2005) reports that a recent initiative by the World Bank entitled, "Africa Good Governance on the Radio Waves," is designed to support local government capacity building and community empowerment by establishing radio links with outlying regions. The program is in place throughout Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda and was implemented July 14, 2005; the enterprise represents the most recent joint program between the Municipal Development Partnership for Eastern and Southern Africa (MDP-ESA) and the World Bank Institute (WBI), who are strategic partners with national associations of local governments in the participating countries. According to Gonzalez de Asis, "The program is transmitted by First Voice International via digital radio, reaching a large number of participants in rural and urban areas in these countries" (p. 2). In addition, Ghana has partnered with the World Bank-sponsored Inter-Agency Commission to:
Assist in the enhancement of country research capacity and application.
Collaboratively design and implement classroom research at the primary school level.
Link findings to practice and policy at various levels (from classrooms to national ministries) of the educational systems (Adams, Clayton, Ginsburg, Mantilla, Sylvester & Wang, 2000).
In spite of these early and ongoing initiatives, and the promises represented by emerging computer-based technologies though, political instability in the ensuing years has drained the nation of valuable resources that were not invested in the nation's educational infrastructure. The country still enjoys a per capita output that is twice that of its immediate neighbors, and recent initiatives targeted at social programs may provide even more assistance in the long-term; however, the need for improvements today is urgent and the longer it takes policymakers to find solutions for the wide range of problems facing them, the more difficult it will be to solve them. Furthermore, an entire generation of Ghanian children will suffer the consequences of these delayed decisions and the country can reasonably be expected to continue to suffer a dismal literacy rate by world standards with the implications this carries for its young citizens. Just as an understanding of the country's educational legacy and the current problems it faces is important to this study, the terminology commonly used in the investigation must be operationalized; these definitions are…[continue]
"Improvement Of Education In Developing Countries Case" (2005, November 05) Retrieved December 7, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/improvement-of-education-in-developing-countries-69625
"Improvement Of Education In Developing Countries Case" 05 November 2005. Web.7 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/improvement-of-education-in-developing-countries-69625>
"Improvement Of Education In Developing Countries Case", 05 November 2005, Accessed.7 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/improvement-of-education-in-developing-countries-69625
Wichit Na Ranong, President of the Tourism Council of Thailand, said: "In a few months there will be a lot of social problems. We need more work for our people. We need the tourists to come back and spend their money, to restore people's livelihoods, otherwise we could be in trouble." As far as the accommodations and infrastructure are concerned the beaches on the West Coast of Phuket were the
Information Systems (IS) and Technology Issues in Developing Countries Technology has changed society in a manner much like the Industrial Revolution of the 17th century. The technology revolution started in the U.S. And the countries of Western Europe, in a manner similar to the industrial revolutions. The benefits of this revolution were immediately obvious in the improvement of productivity and the quality of life in the countries. Realizing the benefits that
Health Care Systems India Malnutrition, Mortality, Malaria: Health Care in India Perri Klass in her article "India" describes a situation when she is unable to diagnose a case of tuberculosis in a South Asian child. As a pediatrician, her repertoire of knowledge of first world diseases is unable to assist her amongst the medical travails of the children of India. Klass describes scenarios where she is unable to comprehend the magnitude of
It is now recognized that individuals learn in different ways -- they perceive and process information in various ways. The learning styles theory suggests that the way that children acquire information has more to do with whether the educational experience is slanted toward their specific style of learning than their intelligence. The foundation of the learning styles methodology is based in the classification of psychological types. The research demonstrates that,
More precisely, the article points out through thorough references that the quality of the education system has decreased especially in impoverished communities throughout the United States. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of education, the article argues, one must first and foremost tackle its root cause, poverty. By comparing other education systems to developing countries, it is concluded that the U.S. does not take the necessary means to
While popularly associated with the advent of web-based technologies, DE is not a new phenomenon (Ragusa et al. 2009, 679)." The author asserts that during the nineteenth century many universities had correspondence programs. These programs remained popular for many years because they were different from more conventional learning environments. At the current time, distance education is driven by the pace of technological change and such changes are occurring globally
However, in the case of Sudan, it may be said that none of the above theories applies. This is largely due to the fact that there are specific internal factors which determine the orientation of the economy in a certain direction. These are most of the times related to the historical evolution of the country under discussion. In the Sudanese case, the end of the war and the independence from