There are a number of ways by which people are affected tremendously by population density and noise. When people contravene other people's privacy, personal space and territory with chronic noise, it may have an effect in a variety of ways ranging from mere frustration to harsh interfering depression-causing infirmities (Straub, 2007). With the increase in population, the three mentioned elements i.e. personal space, privacy and territorial confidentiality of people are encroached. This may require demand recognition of housings for the prevention of the psychosomatic consequences of population mass. Such circumstances also necessitate the prevention of hostility, fretfulness, and annoyance. In order to understand the effects of population density and noise on the individual, it is exceedingly important to first understand the three concepts of personal space, privacy and territoriality, privacy, and personal space.
As far as the notion of privacy is concerned, it is a right of every individual. According to Columbia Encyclopedia, the right of privacy is "the right to be left alone without unwarranted intrusion by government, media, or other institutions or individuals" ("privacy, right of," 2013). Privacy includes various things. It includes having power over facts about oneself. Not only this, it also includes controlling one's interactions and communication with other people (Hutchinson & Kowalski, 1999). In today's contemporary world, the introduction and usage of new technologies have raised concerns regarding the management and organization of information about other people. As a consequence of this, there is a contradiction in the definitions of privacy balance and public information. If put simply, privacy necessities and values have variance and everyone has a different idea about privacy according to his/her circumstances and background (Clayton & Myers, 2008).
When personal space is discussed, it simply means an unwritten and noncontact medium of communication that is held, preserved and updated by every human being who reacts in case of the violation of this space by other human beings. In other words, it is the physical distance chosen by a person so that he/she could keep up his/her interpersonal associations and interactions with others (Hutchinson & Kowalski, 1999). It can be said that in order to maintain one's privacy, a person uses personal space and territoriality as two significant methods. However, such a space is unstable like privacy and every individual, culture and condition has its own space. According to various researches done in the field of neuroscience, it is the human brain that principally creates and mediates the personal space. While circumstances cause shifts in boundaries, personal space is of immense importance and consequence to everyone (Kennedy, Glascher, Tyszka, & Adolphs, 2009).
The third concept that needs to be understood is that of territoriality which means the "actions or behaviors that often emanate from psychological ownership for the purposes of constructing, communicating, maintaining, and restoring one's attachment to an object" (Brown, Lawrence & Robinson, 2005). It includes strong precautionary and imprudent behaviors for a short-term covering observations and opinions, employment and protection of places, community, things, and thoughts. And this is done by using unwritten, self-marker, and environmentally-supported conduct. Territoriality is equipped to gratify certain major and minor situations important for people and society.
Particular behaviors of people help them in maintaining space. Such specific behaviors in human beings make them strong enough to use their capacities for attacking and displaying aggressiveness and maintaining other inherent reactions when their personal space and privacy is contravened. According to recent researches in this area, scientists have given great emphasis on the presence of natural variables that play a major part in the determination of territorialism. It is important to mention here that with the limitation of the availability of critical resources, personal space and belongings are guarded by people with more heartiness and dynamism.
Thus, the concepts of privacy, personal space and territoriality have turned out as increasingly important factors with the density of populations with the passage of time. People are greatly affected by population density which is also a major contributing factor in affecting the psychological state of people. Population density makes people to feel curbed and restricted as necessities of life are not available in abundance. Population masses serve as a major factor in the development of aggressive behaviors, social abandonment, greater incidents of criminality and improper social dealings.
Therefore, if the symptoms of crowding are to be decreased, it is exceedingly important to take necessary steps for the preservation of privacy and personal space. Not only this, it is also the need of the time to recognize and respect territoriality as an indispensable collective need of the Homo sapiens. With the decrease of physical space, more acknowledgment shall be given to privacy and personal space so that the psychological effects can be prevented. This is because the absence/lack of privacy and personal space makes people less powerful, more competitive and negative even in endurable circumstances. In case of the availability of ample space, it has been observed that people feel stronger and have power over their surroundings making them anxiety-free and relaxed.
People who live in urban areas are affected by natural environment in several ways. When natural settings that are managed by human beings are considered, parks, green areas and zoos prop up in mind immediately. These managed settings are a great source for creating support and collective environment for people so that they may interact with the natural world (flora and fauna). This kind of interaction not only makes interaction with the natural surroundings possible but additionally it provides a basis for the environmental identity to foster. This is extremely advantageous as environmental identity is almost always gets withdrawn in metropolitan areas.
The presence of parks and zoos in the urban living settings are a motivational factor for people encouraging them to participate in the management and preservation of nature. People are influenced by the natural environment as a consequence for the reason that the natural settings result in the reduction of diseases, health promotion, community health support and minimization of criminal activities. These theories are consistently proved by the modern-day evidence. Parks in urban settings play a major role in the maximization of physical commotions and people have minimal health issues. It is also a verified fact that people whose accommodations are near greener areas had lesser mortality rates. In addition, green space reduces the noise stress in cosmopolitan areas. Greener vicinities affect the behavioral patterns of people as well by promoting fewer levels of aggression and violence due to close communication among people. Not only this, such green setting also result in excellent academic achievements and more positive public relations bringing the community members closer to each other.
Individuals are also affected by noise in a number of negative ways. According to the research done in health psychology, it has been revealed that recurrent noisy settings affect the health of people in a damaging manner. Human beings are affected as noise increases the levels of cortisol and blood pressure. This is because noise makes people stressed. Cardiovascular diseases also develop when people are constantly exposed to noise. Learning abilities are also hampered due to noise as people are distracted with continuous clamor and clatter in their surroundings.
Noise especially affects children and influences them by disrupting their maladaptive skills by which they are able to obstruct particular stimuli. This results in various problems as children are not capable of completely understanding how they should respond to specific stimuli. Thus, noise makes it impossible for children to identify the stimuli that may help them in learning experience. By blocking noise, it also becomes impossible for children to develop their verbal skills as blockage may also block verbal elements. Loud noises can also interrupt the short-term memory and the ability to carry out simple tasks is also decreased. Every person has a different ability to assess and judge noise. Thus, every person is disturbed by the same noise in different manners. It is also important to note here that stress is not directly caused by noise. However, noise has severe impacts on the sleeping patterns of people and is also responsible for provoking anxiety. The noise that cannot be controlled by the people affects them more severely.
It is a good thing, nevertheless, that by implementing various strategies, noise can be reduced. Noise can be mediated through placement of fabric. The noises that come from outside the domestic settings enter inside the house and cannot be controlled. This can be reduced by the installation of extra fabrics on windows. It can also be installed on walls and other furnished materials. Glass allows noise to travel inside so it is better to cover windows with fabric layers. Sound waves can be trapped in this way in an efficient manner. Noise can also be reduced through auditory masking. Cheap sound masking machines can be bought and installed easily. Noise pollution is a hot issue in the contemporary world especially in the urban areas as it has imposed significant threats for the mental and physical health…