Quantitative and Qualitative Article Review

  • Length: 2 pages
  • Sources: 2
  • Subject: Education
  • Type: Article Review
  • Paper: #12570660

Excerpt from Article Review :

Vaismoradi, 2013)

Qualitative thematic and content analyses represent two widely utilized nursing data analysis techniques. However, no explicit boundaries have been identified between them. That is, researchers utilize them interchangeably and, apparently, find it hard to choose one of the two. In this regard, Vaismoradi's paper explains and deliberates on the borders between qualitative thematic and content analyses, presenting implications for improving the uniformity between information analysis techniques and related researches' purpose. The discussion paper comprises of a logical outline and examination of thematic and content analyses' objectives, definitions, philosophical context, data acquisition and analysis, also dealing with their methodological nuances.

With respect to study setting, this qualitative study doesn't afford any scope for discussions on sample attributes and size. The researcher has founded it on thematic and content analyses concepts. Content analysis aims at describing document content features by studying the speaker, the target audience, and the intended and actual impact. Meanwhile, the qualitative, independent descriptive strategy known as thematic analysis is largely defined as a means to identify, analyze and report data themes. Both analysis modes are employed by nursing researchers.

Nursing research scholars must identify and define the features of potential techniques they intend to apply in their researches for improving validity as well as making the research purpose more consistent with data analysis techniques. Hence, this paper defines and explains the borders between the two widely applied qualitative strategies of thematic and content analysis, putting forward implications for improving the uniformity between information analysis techniques and related researches' purpose.

The study concludes that despite the numerous commonalities between the two methods, such as cutting across information and seeking themes/patterns, the chief distinction is with regard to the chance to quantify data. That is, one can only measure diverse patterns' and classes' frequency within thematic analysis carefully as a substitution for significance. By contrast, nursing research scholars are more comfortable with, and used to, content analysis. A comparison of the two strategies can aid researches in better understanding thematic analysis and supporting it equally.

2. Quantitative Paper (Refer Sundborg, Saleh-Stattin, Wandell, &Tornkvist, 2012)

IPV or intimate partner violence greatly affects women's health. Nursing staff in primary care settings must be adequately equipped to detect it and deliver suitable interventions, as it is common within primary care settings. This research is aimed at gauging nurse readiness to detect and deliver care to IPV victims in primary care settings.

Researchers gathered study data via a questionnaire aimed at primary care nurses (response rate=69.3%). They employed logistic regression analysis for examining variable relationships. The STATA 9.0 software was utilized for data analysis purposes. Frequency tables as descriptive statistics were created for data descriptions as percentage and number distributions.

One hundred and ninety two nurses employed at 39 PHCCs (primary healthcare centers), out of 277 to whom the questionnaires were sent, returned completed questionnaires following one reminder. Of the 83 who dropped out, 64 returned their questionnaire (16 returned it without answering while the rest cited ailment, vacation, shortage of time, maternity leave, etc. as reasons for their decision to not take part) and19 failed to do so.

Researchers found shortcomings with regard to nurse readiness. There was no organizational support in the form of guidelines, knowledge provision and cooperation. Only 50% of them questioned female patients regarding violence exposure, chiefly if they came to the hospital with physical injuries. They didn't know how they are supposed to pose such personal questions and in instances where violence was identified, the common action taken was a physician's appointment. The feeling of preparedness was associated with personally seeking and acquiring knowledge and identifying IPV victims.

Researchers concluded that most nurses were rather ill-equipped to care for IPV victims. The repercussions of this include symptom treatment but unidentified female maltreatment and, hence, further, unwarranted suffering for victims. Individual as well as organizational level improvements are necessary. The findings may be utilized for developing primary care nurse-targeted educational initiatives to enable this healthcare worker population to take better care of IPV victims.

Paper 1 -- Qualitative Study

Paper 2 -- Quantitative Study


Sundborg, E., Saleh-Stattin, N., Wandell, P., & Tornkvist, L. (2012). Nurses' preparedness to care for women exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: a quantitative study in primary health care. BMC Nursing.

Vaismoradi, M. (2013). Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study. Nursing and Health Sciences, 398 - 405.

Review Article

Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study

Mojtaba Vaismoradi, PhD, MScN, BScN,1,3 Hannele Turunen, PhD, RN2 and Terese
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Bondas, PhD, RN2,3

College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, UK, Department of Nursing Science, Kuopio

Campus, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland and Faculty of Professional Studies, University of Nordland,

Bodo, Norway

Abstract Qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis are two commonly used approaches in data analysis of nursing research, but boundaries between the two have not been clearly specified. In other words, they are being used interchangeably and it seems difficult for the researcher to choose between them. In this respect, this paper describes and discusses the boundaries between qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis and presents implications to improve the consistency between the purpose of related studies and the method of data analyses.This is a discussion paper, comprising an analytical overview and discussion of the definitions, aims, philosophical background, data gathering, and analysis of content analysis and thematic analysis, and addressing their methodological subtleties. It is concluded that in spite of many similarities between the approaches, including cutting across data and searching for patterns and themes, their main difference lies in the opportunity for quantification of data. It means that measuring the frequency of different categories and themes is possible in content analysis with caution as a proxy for significance.

Key words content analysis, nursing, qualitative descriptive research, thematic analysis.


In health care, qualitative methodologies aim to explore

complex phenomena encountered by nurses, other providers,

policy makers, and patients (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000;

Sandelowski & Barroso, 2003a; Tong et al., 2007). The phi-losophy and the basic principles of methodologies, study

aims and questions, and designs and data gathering criteria

provide key differences between qualitative and quantitative

methodologies (Ayres, 2007a).A belief in multiple realities, a commitment to identifying an approach to in-depth under-standing of the phenomena, a commitment to participants'

viewpoints, conducting inquiries with the minimum disrup-tion to the natural context of the phenomenon, and reporting

findings in a literary style rich in participant commentaries

are the main characteristics of qualitative methodologies

(Streubert Speziale & Carpenter, 2007).

Qualitative methodologies consist of the philosophical

perspectives, assumptions, postulates, and approaches that

researchers employ to render their work open to analysis,

critique, replication, repetition, and/or adaptation and to choose research methods. In this respect, qualitative method-ologies refer to research approaches as the tools with which

researchers design their studies, and collect and analyse their

data (Given, 2008). Qualitative methodologies are not a single research approach, but different epistemological per-spectives and pluralism have created a range of "approaches"

such as grounded theory, phenomenology, ethnography, action research, narrative analysis, and discourse analysis.

Qualitative research in the field of health has, at times,

been undertaken without identification of the specific meth-

odology used. The term "approach" is used in this article to differentiate it from the narrower term "methods." This indi-cates a coherent epistemological viewpoint about the nature

of enquiry, the kind of knowledge discovered or produced,

and the kind of strategies that are consistent with this

(Giorgi, 1970; Holloway & Todres, 2005).

Qualitative approaches share a similar goal in that they

seek to arrive at an understanding of a particular phenom-

enon from the perspective of those experiencing it. There-fore, the researcher needs to determine which research

approach can answer their research questions (Streubert

Speziale & Carpenter, 2007). There is a considerable overlap among available qualitative approaches in terms of methods, procedures, and techniques. Such an overlap of epistemologi-cal, aesthetic, ethical, and procedural concerns can encour-age a generic view of qualitative research, considering it a "family" approach in which the similarities are more impor-

tant than the differences, and where the notion of flexibility becomes an important value and quest. However, there is

another point of view, concerned with how such flexibility can

lead to inconsistency and a lack of coherence (Holloway &

Correspondence address: Hannele Turunen, Department of Nursing Science, Kuopio

Campus, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. PO Box 1627, 70211

Kuopio. Email: hannele.

Conflict of interest: None.

Received 20 March 2012; revision received 30 December 2012; accepted 28 January



Nursing and Health Sciences (2013), 15, 398 -- 405

© 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. doi: 10.1111/nhs.12048

Todres, 2003). It should not be forgotten that consumers of research assess the quality of evidence offered in a study by evaluating the conceptual and methodological decisions the researchers have made. Therefore, the researcher needs to make good decisions to produce evidence of the highest pos-sible quality (Polit & Beck, 2003; Hoye & Severinsson, 2007).


Nurse researchers need to delineate…

Sources Used in Documents:


Ayres L. Qualitative research proposal -- part I: posing the problem.

J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007a; 34: 30 -- 32.

Ayres L. Qualitative research proposals -- part II: conceptual models and methodological options. J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs.

2007b; 34: 131 -- 133.

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