The other criteria to be used in the selection of the institutions of higher learning are their length of existence and size.
Data collection plans
Data is to be collected using questionnaires and triangulation is to be used in the process. This means that both qualitative and quantitative techniques of data collection are to be used in order to increase the chances of getting valid results (Jick, 1979).
The following sources of information will be consulted;
Academic journals such as Library Review, Update, Library Trend and Program
Online databases and gateways such as BIDS, OCLC, BUBL, OMNI, ProQuests, Academic Complete and EBSCOHOST
Books that are relevant to the research and trends in the sector of higher education
Quantitative data collection
Quantitative data is to be collected using questionnaires that are to be administered to the respondents in a six-month period. The questionnaires are appropriate instruments for collecting data related to administrative issues (Ashkanasy, Broadfoot and Falkus,2000).
Reliability and validity of data collection instruments
The reliability of the questionnaires concerns their ability to produce the exact same results if subjected to similar tests repeatedly. This is however not possible in practice. The major threat to reliability in the case of questionnaires is the use of very long and ambiguous questions. The reliability of the questionnaires is therefore achieved by choosing extremely devoted respondents who have consistent level of interest as well as concentration in the whole period when the research is being carried out.
The validity of the questionnaires is used to measure the level at which the questions that are asked reflect the true measure of the phenomena they are meant to measure. Various threats to validity and reliability of a given questionnaires are mostly likely to creep in case a bias is introduced. So as to ensure that the survey instruments employed yield reliable and valid data the following steps are to be followed as recommended by Grinnel and Unrau (2005)
The Initial Steps as well as Factors to be Considered in the development of Survey Instrument
Steps in the Survey Research
The Major Tasks as well Factors to be taken into consideration
1. Definition of the research the problem domain;
2. Definition of the research questions as well as hypotheses;
3. Operational definition of all the variables;
4. Development of the survey design to be employed.
Development as well as the Application of Sampling Plan
1. Definition of the study population;
2. Identification of the study subpopulations;
3. Detailed of the sampling procedures;
4. Selection of the sample.
Construction of Interview Schedule (Questionnaire)
1. Development of the questions or the selection of measurement instrument;
2. Development of the anticipated analysis procedures;
3. Pretest of the instrument;
4. Revision of the questions (should be carried out as often).
1.The Implementation of the interviews,, inventories, questionnaires tests as well as observations schedules;
3. The initial tabulation as well as coding.
Translation of the Data gathered
1. Construction of the category systems as appropriate;
2. The technical preparation of the data for analysis.
1. The separate analyses of the questions; either individually or in specified groups;
2. The synthesis as well as interpretation of results.
Conclusions to the research, Reporting, Etc.
Source: Grinnell & Unrau ( 2005,p. 273).
Results of pilot studies
The pilot studies are to be carried out in five universities and will involve fifteen employees; five at the managerial level and ten from the lower management levels.The other participants in this study are thirty five students from the five universities. The obtained results are to be utilized in the prediction and aligning of the main research processes.
The proposed analysis of the data
The analysis and the evaluation techniques employed here include the use of standard statistical package (SPSS) to be used for the examination of the associations, cross-tabulation and groupings that may emerge via a factor analysis. In the case of a qualitative data analysis, a special data analysis software package is to be used in aiding to code as well as the derivation of themes from the data collected in the interviews.
The results of the analysed data such as the mean and variance from the quantitative study are to be used in the making of the deductions on the research objectives and for testing the hypothesis. The final outcomes of this research project are to be used;
1. As evidence for the guidelines used for gauging and improving the level of risk management and in activating administrative functions for the sake of improving the learning process in the institutions of higher learning
2. As guidelines to be used by administrators and stakeholders in the management of higher education institutions
Implications and limitations
This research is to be used in improving the effectiveness of running and managing risks in institutions of higher learning. It is also to aid in the improvement of the level of administration in the various institutions of learning.
The main limitations to this research would include time, geographical disparity and funds.
A number of resources are needed in order to complete this research. These include computers to be utilized for statistical analysis. The computer is to be loaded with statistical analysis software for the qualitative data analysis. The resources that are important for the process of collecting quantitative data are mobile phones as well as modems used for connecting the computers for mailing the components.
The research would require the help of a research assistant. Their work would begin at the pilot studies and extent through to data collection and the final analysis of the collected data.
This research would require a research assistant to aid in the conducting of the pilot studies, the main study and the collection and the analysis of the obtained data
Prior to initiating the research, permission and clearance must be sort from the various institutions of higher learning. This research must also be carried out in compliance with the state, federal and local guidelines.
The tentative timetable to be used for the proposed study is shown in the Table 2 below;
Tentative Timetable for the Proposed Study
TIME (MONTHS) (2011)
Photocopy information from various non-bibliographic sources
Reading of relevant materials
Submission of research proposal
Fine tuning of the research question as well as the methodology
Collection of data
Analysis of data
Writing up of the dissertation
Revising, editing as well as submission
Submission of the completed dissertation
The budget was derived after a careful evaluation of the research components and duration. Ingersoll & Eberhard (1999) pointed out that the main determinant of the size of the budget is the scope of the project
Cost per unit
# of units
This is based on the quoted fares to various institutions that are located in dispersed locations from my location hostel
Daily rate for hostels in cities
Daily rate for meals as well as incidental expenses in various cities where the universities are located communication
Average cost for phone as well as internet stationery
For the supplies such papers, printing fee etc.
AIVD (2002), Jaarverslag 2002, the Hague.
Amaral a, Fulton O & Larsen IM (2003) "A Managerial Revolution?"in Amaral a, Meek VL & Larsen IM the Higher Education Managerial Revolution? Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 275-296.
British Standards Institution (2002)ISO/IEC Guide 73.
Gratt, L.B., 1993. Air toxic risk assessment: Science vs. policy in regulatory estimates for outdoor stationary sources.
Grinnell, R.M. Jr. & Unrau, Y.A. (2005). Social work research and evaluation: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. New York: Oxford University Press
Helsloot, I. And Jong, W. (2006), Risk Management in Higher Education and Research in the Netherlands. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management
Ingersoll, G.L., & Eberhard, D. (1999). Grants management skills keep funded projects on target.Nursing Economics, 17, 131-141.
Jick, T.D. (1979). Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Triangulation in action.
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Kaplin WA., and Lee, BA. (1995). The Law of Higher Education: A Comprehensive Guide to Legal Implications of Administrative Decision Making, 3rd edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.