Agriculture practices have significant impact on both marine and terrestrial environment. All over the world many agriculture practices are creating negative impact on tropical forest and on wild life. This study shows the negative impacts of banana, coffee and pineapple plantation on the marine and terrestrial environment in Costa Rica. Many agriculture practices are creating negative impact on the tropical rainforest. This study also describes the issue of mono culture and what steps government should take in order to reduce the consequences.
Nowadays practices that are being used for plantation of banana are creating negative impacts on tropical rainforests. Fungicides and insecticides applied on banana plantation are also causing cancer and these fungicides and insecticides are very harmful for the workers on plantation besides, distressing the surrounding environment. So it very necessary to create awareness about the negative impact of banana plantation which is basically mono crop plantation. Farmers should limit the chemical usage in plantation and should cultivate environmentally friendly fruits.
Coffee plantation in Costa Rica is also creating negative impacts on the environment so there is a need of improving current legislation on this matter. Coffee plantations require excessive use of water which is creating negative impacts on the environment. Also pineapple plantation is also creating negative impacts on the environment. This paper also discusses the different negative impacts of pineapple plantation and how to prevent from them.
Human beings, animals, plants, everyone's life survival depends on water. About 71% of the planet's face is enclosed by water. Most of the water on earth is in the form of seas and oceans. Water gives us food, energy and water is not only essential for our lives but also for the intercontinental trade and calm global environment's subsistence.
Not only used by human beings but world's oceans pave the way for marine transports, mining and other natural resources depends on oceans' continuation, and also the climate control depends on it. Today, around 85% of universal fish catch is accounted by the marine fisheries and 80% of the operations are carried out through ocean shipping. Even after imposition of several laws, the fishing still continues to pose a threat that our ecological environment is in danger of going extinct. It is estimate that around 70% of the world's fish is found to be beyond sustainable limits (Castillo, Martinez, Ruepert, Savage, Gilek, & Pinnock, 2006).
The industries use ocean as an outlet to dump their waste in. The continuous danger of accidental oil spillage and of other nuclear or radioactive materials at sea is also a major threat. Destructive algal organisms that are nurtured by sewage and waste have become more common and are affecting the scenic beauty (Organic Farming in the Tropics and Subtropics).
Anything belonging to land rather than the sea or air comes under the category of 'Terrestrial'. This particular environment consists of that part of earth's land area which includes human-made and natural surface, which modifies with the change in the atmosphere. About 12.2% of the area globally comes under the category of terrestrial environment.
Negative impact of banana plantation
Nowadays practices that are being used for plantation of banana are creating very negative impacts on tropical rainforests. Banana plantation is playing big part in the disastrous loss of biodiversity. Banana is an inexpensive fruit and it is the 5th largest agriculture commodity in the world trade and the fourth largest crop of the world in terms of gross value of production.
Banana plantation needs hot humid this is the reason why bananas grow in humid environment. So for banana plantation huge space is required in thick rainforest (Morton, 1987). As rainforest are necessary for plants and animals and they also absorb carbon dioxide so if rainforest are destroyed it will have a negative impact on the environment. These forests also help in generating rainfall so if rainforests are destroyed in order to harvest bananas then it will disturb the natural processes on Earth.
Major issue with the farming of banana is monoculture. Farming banana also diminishes soil fertility. Fungicides and insecticides applied on banana plantation are also causing cancer and these fungicides and insecticides are very harmful for the workers on plantation besides, distressing the surrounding environment (The Environmental Impact of Banana Plantations).
Pesticides used in banana plantation to protect crops from insects are also creating negative impacts on the biodiversity of the waterways. Banana plantation also has negative impacts on the soil (Worobetz, 2000). The major negative impact of banana plantation is reduction in nutrients and this happens because of the reduction of rainforests. Like in Costa Rica there was 37% reduction in the amount of carbon in the soil and 16.5% reduction in magnesium because of the banana plantations. Banana plantation also impact negatively on the soil downwind because levels of chemical in the soil are increased especially in the mountain forests of Costa Rica (Banana plantations in Latin America).
Banana cultivation in Costa Rica
In Costa Rica, one of the major sources of foreign exchange is banana cultivation and it holds the major part of trade in Costa Rica. In Costa Rica 33% of foreign exchange comes from exports of banana. The production and exports of bananas is increasing day by day which result in disturbing the environment as well as having a negative impact on health of people in the production region (Costa Rica Analysis).
Many organizations in Costa Rica are opposing expansion of banana production because of the negative impacts on environment and society. As mentioned above that cultivation of banana has established itself as monoculture and its cultivation requires huge area of land and control over ground water which creates deforestation and declines in ground water resources. It also requires proper channels of drainage and canals. Cultivation of bananas also requires high level of fertilizers and insect killer chemicals. Banana plantation also increases the level of contaminated waste water. Costa Rica is also facing mineral deficiencies in the soil because of the expansion of banana plantation. Most of the farmers do not obey the forest and water legislation in the plantation of bananas.
The usage of pesticides in Costa Rica is also increasing day by day especially in banana plantation. 33% of the pesticides imported in Costa Rica are consumed by the banana industry and it is almost 35% of the total banana production cost. In order to protect the roots of banana trees, plastic bags are used which are creating negative impacts on the environment. The use of Di Bromo Chloro Propane for the protection of banana plants is also creating negative impact on the health of banana workers. Pacific region of Costa Rica had faced great loss of fertile soil which was spoiled by the excessive use of chemicals (Astorga).
So it very necessary to create awareness among the people about the negative impacts of banana plantation which is basically mono crop plantation. Farmers should limit the chemical usage in plantation and should cultivate environmentally friendly fruits. Farmers should reduce pesticide usage and soil destruction. Farmers should adopt the poly culture farming method and there should be proper regulation in banana plantation. Proper research is also important when creating chemicals to spray on banana crop and farmers must use chemicals that don't have negative impacts on the environment. Farmers should use the protective clothes while using these pesticides. In order to get pest control, pesticides usage level must reduce in banana plantation. Farmers should use non-toxic bags to protect banana bunches. These non-toxic bags would protect banana roots from insects without creating negative impacts on the environment.
Negative impacts of coffee plantation
Coffee is one of the most traded commodities around the world. Because of changes in growing techniques the production of coffee is showing an increasing trend but these changes are having negative impacts on the environment. The elimination of canopy shad impacted negatively on wildlife. Because of the introduction of latest techniques in coffee plantation now farmers are growing coffee under sunlight which increases the use of fertilizers and bug killer. This process is also degrading the environment.
Coffee plantation in Costa Rica
Costa Rica produces high quality coffee because of the high amount of caffeine. Costa Rica is one of the major exporters of coffee and it is playing a key role in the Costa Rican economy. It is the major source of revenue for the country.
Beside all these positive points, coffee plantation in Costa Rica is impacting the environment negatively. Coffee plantation is increasing pollution of rivers because majority coffee producers dumped their wastes directly to rivers which ultimately creates negative impact on marine life. Coffee production in Costa Rica is also increasing soil erosion and the main reason of this soil erosion is the deforestation for coffee production. Excessive coffee production also resulted in forestry loss which has increased at the rate of 4% annually in Costa Rica (Costa Rica Launches Groundbreaking Environmental Initiative). The rate of forest plantation is also increasing so government should focus on this…