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People management is basically making sure that all the employees of an organization are able to effectively coordinate themselves and carry out their duties to the highest possible standards. People management forms the highest part of any firm by ensuring that functions and duties are performed accurately and consistently at the highest standards (Purcell, 2008). The approaches and leadership stances employed by managers in people management field has been noted to differ from one manager to another i.e. A manager/supervisor may choose to be either an autocratic, paternal or democratic manager. Autocratic management approach may be applied in situations requiring quick culture change within a large organization while paternal approach is recommended for small businesses requiring the workforce to be trained in order to provide the same quality services and products as the older managers. Democratic leadership approach on the other hand is advocated for in large organizations employing many people to create ideas for the firm.
The socio-political environment of an organization refers to the external aspects that affects the operations of an organization and includes both social factors like customs, traditions, values, beliefs, poverty and literacy levels, life expectancy rate within the environment that the organization operates in and the political systems, policies of government and its position towards business. The social composition and the values that are up held by the society do have a great influence on the functioning of the business organizations i.e. festive seasons brings about an immense increase in the demand for new clothes, confectionaries, fruits, flower, etc. Increased levels of literacy have enabled the consumers to be extra conscious of the quality of the products and services they purchase (Griffin & Moorhead, 2011). The alterations in family composition have also witnessed a great increase in number of nuclear families with single child concepts. This in turn has led to increased demand for various house hold commodities.
Political factors such as government stability, political party ideologies and trade unionism have been noted to bear profound effects on the operations of a business (Wellington, 2011). They tend to affect the confidence of investors and other interest groups while trade union activities like strikes, lock outs, labor disputes and demonstrations affects the productivity and profitability of the organizations has time is wasted in solving disputes.
The economic environment of an organization consists of the economic policies, systems and conditions of a country or location of the firm. Conditions such as gross domestic product, per capita income, availability of markets for goods and services, accessibility to capital, foreign exchange reserves, growth of international trade and capital markets strength (Griffin & Moorhead, 2011) amongst other factors depicts an increase in economic growth thereby making it attractive for investors. Government policies such as monetary, fiscal, industrial foreign investment and export-import policies are dynamic and changes from time to time due to developments in the economic scenario and political expediency.
Tesco, which is among the largest food retail stores in the world, operates about 2,318 stores and employs over 330,000 people. It also operates an online business subsidiary known as Tesco.com. It also provides online services through its subsidiary, Tesco.com which is the largest online souk in the UK operating under flour brands namely; Superstore, Express, Extra and Superstore. The firm deals in over 40000 food products and also non-food products such as clothing and other non-food items.
The firm's own-label products are found at three standards, value, normal and finest. The company's stores also operate gas stations and personal finance services under Tesco Personal Finance. The firm operates in a global environment with stores all over the world and in six European countries namely; Republic of Ireland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Turkey and Poland. Tesco's output is immensely influenced by the political, legislative, economic and social environments of the countries in which it operates, inclusive of the European Union. The government has enacted policies that eggs on retailers to offer a mix of job openings from flexible, low pay and local-based jobs to skilled, high-pay and centrally-located job opportunities (Torres-Coronas & Oliva, 2005). Also to meet the demand from different classes of the society such as students, parents and senior citizens. The firm understands the effects of retailing on jobs and people factors (new developments in stores are always viewed as destroying other jobs in the retail segment as old stores are either forced to close down or cut down the costs of operation in order to compete effectively in the industry), being inherently local and labor demanding sector. Tesco offers employment to a great number of students, disabled and elderly workers, paying them lower rates compared to other established retail stores.Due to higher staff turnover in the industry, the employees tend to offer higher levels of loyalty and therefore signify desirable employees.
The economic environment in which Tesco operates presents a great challenge to it as it directly and indirectly affects the demand, costs and prices of the products and also the profits realized by the company. Amongst the most prominent and influential factors on the economy is a high unemployment levels, that in turn decreases the effective demand for goods and services, thereby negatively affecting the demand needed to produce such products (Purcell, 2008). Economic factors are external and thus out of the company's control but their influence on productivity and marketing mix may be profound. Even with an increase in growth in the international business in terms of revenue contribution to the firm, Tesco is still dependent on the United Kingdom market and would be greatly disadvantaged by any slow down in the country's food market as it is highly exposed to market concentration risks.
Current social developments in the UK market have indicated that British consumers have drifted towards one-stop and bulk shopping, due to a various social changes. Tesco has reacted by increasing the amount of non-food items available for sale (Wellington, 2011).
Demographic factors such as the growing number of the aging population, increase in number of female employees and a slow down in home meal preparation means that retailers in UK are also focusing on value added goods and services. It has also been noted that focus has shifted towards; the own-label share of the business mix; the supply chain and other operational advancements, that has driven costs out of the business. Generally, retailers have become increasingly reticent on taking new suppliers.
It has also been noted that the type of products and services demanded by consumers depends on their social conditioning, values and their consequent attitudes and beliefs (Griffin & Moorhead, 2011). Consumers have increasingly become more and more conscious of health issues, and their attitudes towards food are continuously changing. Tesco has n reacted to these social changes by enabling its product mix is to accommodate the ever increasing demand for organic food products and also by allowing consumers to pay in cheques and cash at the stores' exit points. The retail organization's strengths were noted in areas such as increase in the market share that has been attributed to the firm's multi-format capabilities that enables it to register growth in the food industry while at the same time being able to grow its share in non-food market as a result of increased space. Strength has also been exhibited by the firm's online subsidiary Tesco.com which is the worlds biggest online store operating over 270 stores in UK, and covering 96% of the country. Over 1.5 million families nationwide have used the firm's online services thus giving it a strong platform to expand its profit margins. The profits from the firm's operations in Europe and Asia have risen by over 78% due top its strong image (Torres-Coronas & Oliva, 2005), association with the best quality products and services and reliable products symbolizing exceptional value. The business' ways of enhancing…[continue]
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