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As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
Research for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Define EQ and expand on its role in today's global world.
Each answer from EQ testing, Thibodeaux and Bond (2006) contend, reflects emotional intelligence's concept.
Emotional Intelligence embodies:
Empathy for others
An individual standing up for what he/she believe in a tactful, respectful manner
Refraining from jumping to conclusions; obtaining whole picture before reacting
An individual understanding his/her emotions, as well as, other individual's emotions and in turn, based on understanding, acting in the most suitable way.
A healthy emotional intelligence helps a person secure his/her personal boundaries, make decisions about his/her life, and communicate with those he/she loves. Just as a person may increase his/her EQ by identifying and taking responsibility for his/her emotions, he/she may also decrease his/her EQ. To maintain and increase IQ, a person has to persist in identifying and working on personal areas that need improvement.
Compare questions asked in EQ tests with questions asked in IQ Tests.
One sample question from an EQ test:
Situation: A friend has borrowed something small, but high in sentimental value. You've asked for your friend to return the item, but your friend has failed to bring it back.
You end the friendship. You don't need a friend who disrespects you and your feelings.
You let it go. Friendship is more important than material items.
You give your friend the cold shoulder until he or she returns your item.
You admit to your friend how important the item is to you and why you would like it back, and ask your friend to return the item to you.
Sample question from IQ test:
1. If you rearrange the letters "NOPTYH," you would have the name of a/an:
Identify current tests and/or theories are available for assessing EQ.
This research will expand on theories existing in EQ which include:
MSCEIT v2.0 (successor of MEIS); Mayer and Salovey (1997),
EQ-i (a measure of Reuven Bar-on's model of emotional intelligence)
Goleman (1998b; 2002).
Assess accuracy of EQ's assumptions for individuals.
True of false: Unlike IQ, emotional intelligence can be developed. This statement evokes agreements, arguments and skepticism. Emmerling (Ibid, p 20) cites McCrae (2000) to comment:
we know a great deal about the origins of personality traits. Traits from all five factors are strongly influenced by genes... And are extraordinarily persistent in adulthood." Genetics most likely employ a vital role in the development of emotional intelligence, yet at the same time, nurture also influences nature. "EI may be learned through life experience... If weak, improvement in EI with maturation... without sustained effort and attention, individuals are unlikely to improve greatly a given aspect of their emotional intelligence." (Ibid)
Examine numerous studies testing the reliability of EQ.
Whyte (2001) implemented his study, modeling some aspects after Wilson's and Batterham's 1999 proposal of novel approach to assessing the test-retest stability of psychometric questionnaires. "They recommended assessing the proportion of agreement -- that is, the proportion of participants that record the same response to an item -- using a test-retest design." Using a bootstrapping technique, they estimated the proportion of agreement the uncertainty. Whyte (Ibid) stated his aims to be:
To demonstrate that the sampling distribution of the proportion of agreement is well-known (the binomial distribution), making the technique of 'bootstrapping' redundant,
To suggest a much simpler, more sensitive method of assessing the stability of a psychometric questionnaire based on the test-retest differences (within-individuals) for each item."
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Durrenmatt, Friedrich. (1996). The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: ColumbiaUniversity Press. [25 September 2006]. http://www.bartleby.com/66/73/18273.html.
Emmerling, Psy.D, Robert J. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE: ISSUES and COMMON MISUNDERSTANDINGS. October, 2003. [26 September 2006]. http://www.eiconsortium.org/research/EI_Issues_And_Common_Misunderstandings.pdf.
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. (1996). The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press. [26 September 2006]. http://www.bartleby.com/66/47/22347.html.
Tests - Human Resource Training - Consultancy." (2000). [25 September 2006]. Www.psyasia.com/supportsuite.
The Ultimate Personality Test. (2006) Tickle Tests. [25 September 2006]. http://web.tickle.com/personality/?sid=2005&supp=search_personality_psychological&tst=personality.
Whyte, Gregory P.. "Stability of psychometric questionnaires.(Statistical Data Included),"
Journal of Sports Sciences, April 1, 2001.
Durrenmatt (1996) may have had it right when he said, "Emotions have no place in business, unless you do business with them." Or perhaps, he was wrong. Only the test of time, however, will tell. Albeit, at this time, this dissertation, entitled Testing Tests, presents:
Definition and expanded information of EQ, and its role in today's global world.
Comparison of questions asked in EQ tests with questions asked in IQ Tests.
Identifications of current tests, along with applicable theories for assessing EQ.
Assessment of accuracy of EQ's assumptions for individuals.
Examination of numerous studies testing the reliability of EQ.
This research presents relevant data gathered from literature related to EQ, and assessed to determine its scope of accuracy, acceptability and availability. Determinations are made regarding the hypothesis presented in this proposal entitled, Testing Tests.
Findings ultimately confirm this researcher's hypothesis: While the utilization of EQ serves to enhance the responder's understanding of his/her emotional intelligence, numerous other factors "figure in" to determine the validity of this type testing.
TESTING TESTS DISSERTATION
I. The Business of Emotions 1
Business as "Not so Usual" 1
II. Literature Review ' 3
Different, yet Similar 3
Definition and expanded information of EQ, and its role in today's global world. 3
2.2 Comparison of questions asked in EQ tests with questions asked in IQ Tests. 5
2.3 Identifications of current tests, along with applicable theories for assessing EQ.
2.4 Assessment of accuracy of EQ's assumptions for individuals.
2.5 Examination of numerous studies testing the reliability of EQ. 22
Slide Show 34
Testing Facts 52
V. Conclusions and Recommendations
What's Left Behind 55
5.1 Aims and Objectives
5.2 Objective 1 55
5.3 Objective 2 56
5.6 Objective 5 57
I. The Business of Emotions
Business as "Not so Usual"
Emotions have no place in business, unless you do business with them." (Durrenmatt, 1996)
Back in yesteryears, the concept of deliberately bringing emotions into the business realm, or implementing tests related to emotions into the business arena would have most likely been "shot down." Today, however, the "Question: Is success in life and career determined primarily by rational intelligence (the IQ or intelligence quotient) or emotional intelligence (the EQ or emotional quotient)?" repeatedly surfaces in business. In other words, individuals in the business world are having to determine whether intelligence or intuition is more important and/or how they relate to each other. Essentially, an individual's EQ reflects the level of his/her ability to understand other individuals; things that motivates them and how to work in cooperative ways with others. (Ibid)
While emotional intelligence's impact has recently stimulated a number of research initiatives across a range of psychology domains, controversy has also evolved and continues to exist; forging a gap between what is known and what needs to be known. (Emmerling, 2003, p 2) Delving into the known, as well as, into the unknown in EQ, in order to know and make better known basic information about EQ, constitutes the rationale for this researcher's efforts. Questions considered in Emmerling's study, a primary source for consideration in this project include:
What is emotional intelligence (EI)?
How is it different from other established constructs within psychology?
Is it possible to develop EI?
Is EI a better predictor of work performance than traditional measures of intelligence...
Which kinds of work performance does EI predict most strongly?
Should EI be measured at all?
What is the relationship between ethics and EI?" (Ibid, p 3)
This dissertation examines the following questions, which, although similar to Emmerling's, focus on the hypothesis: While the utilization of EQ serves to enhance the responder's understanding of his/her emotional intelligence, numerous other factors "figure in" to determine the validity of this type testing.
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In other words Emotional Intelligence means that the individual is capable of: (1) Accurately perceiving emotions in oneself and others; (2) Uses emotions to facilitate thinking; (3) Understands emotional meanings; and (4) Manages emotions well. This model is referred to as the 'ability' model of emotional intelligence. (Mayer & Salovey, 1997) DANIEL GOLEMAN-PERSONAL & SOCIAL COMPETENCE Daniel Goleman proposed the model of emotional intelligence based on the Personal and Social competencies
Intelligence Testing Few concepts in psychology are more hotly debated than the idea of what constitutes human intelligence. The definition of intelligence has become part of current culture wars as well as an area of intense scientific debate. This paper examines one popular theory of intelligence, Howard Gardner's concept of 'multiple intelligences,' which has been proposed as an alternative to the theory of 'general intelligence,' or intelligence as a concept that
CONTROLLING OUR EMOTIONS? EMOTIONAL LITERACY: MECHANISM FOR SOCIAL CONTROL? At the core of becoming an activist educator Is identifying the regimes of truth that govern us the ideas that govern how we think, act and feel as educators because it is within regimes of truth that inequity is produced and reproduced. (MacNaughton 2005, 20) Disorder, addictions, vulnerability and dysfunction...." Disorder, addictions, vulnerability and dysfunction...." These terns, according to Nolan (1998; Furedi 2003; cited by Ecclestone
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Individual Psychological Testing in the Workplace
According to the authors, this can be done if employees are given a sense of importance in the organizations. Knowledge workers are already short in supplies and most competing rivals also compete to get the best human resource in terms of knowledge workers. It is therefore essential for any organization to retain this highly skilled part of their workforce and in order to do that organizations must eliminate the
According to Weiss and Kolberg, "In the 1960s, a breakthrough in sharing the assessment results came from the Peace Corps when the psychologists who were working with the volunteers used surveys that were geared to expand the volunteer's self-knowledge, under the assumption that expanding self-knowledge would help a volunteer better deal with culture change. This was the first time that this type of assessment was done for the primary benefit
workplace are job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, and personality tests. Job Knowledge Tests Achievement tests or job knowledge tests are composed of questions designed to measure technical or professional expertise in a specific area of knowledge. Therefore job knowledge tests assess the knowledge of the test taker at the point in time of the assessment. Job knowledge tests are most often utilized in conditions that require applicants to possess a