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Health Belief Model
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012) smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. It is estimated that there are more than 43 million adults who currently smoke in the United States. Of these 53% are men and 47% are women. Tobacco use is responsible for causing many diseases and reducing the health of smokers in general. The adverse effects of smoking cigarettes account for approximately 443,000, or nearly one in five deaths in the United States annually. Tobacco use causes more deaths each year than all of the deaths caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, and murders combined. An estimated 90% of all lung cancer deaths in men and 80% of all lung cancer deaths in women are the result of smoking as are 90% of all deaths from chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD).
Compared to nonsmokers smoking is estimated to increase the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke by 2 to 4 times, developing lung cancer by 23 times in men and 13 times in women, and dying of COPD by 12 to 13 times. Smoking causes coronary heart disease (the leading cause of death in the United States), reduces circulation by narrowing the arteries, and puts users at risk of developing an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The cancers associated with tobacco use include lung, acute myeloid leukemia, bladder, cervical, esophageal, kidney, larynx, mouth, pancreatic, pharynx, and stomach. Smoking is also linked to infertility, preterm delivery, stillbirth, low birth weight, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Furthermore, postmenopausal women who smoke have a lower bone density and an increased risk for hip fracture than woman who never smoked (CDC, 2012).
Evidence shows that the harmful effects of smoking do not end with the smoker. An estimated 88 million nonsmoking Americans, including 54% of children aged 3 -- 11 years, are exposed to secondhand smoke. Even brief exposure can be dangerous because nonsmokers inhale many of the same poisons in cigarette smoke as smokers (CDC, 2011).
Secondhand smoke exposure causes serious diseases and even death. The effects of secondhand smoke have been traced to heart disease and lung cancer in nonsmoking adults and sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, ear problems and more frequent and severe asthma attacks in children. Each year, primarily because of exposure to secondhand smoke, an estimated 3,000 nonsmoking Americans die of lung cancer, more than 46,000 die of heart disease, and about 150,000 to 300,000 children younger than 18 months have lower respiratory tract infections. Coupled with this enormous health toll is the significant economic burden of tobacco use, more than $96 billion a year in medical costs and another $97 billion a year from lost productivity (CDC, 2011). Quitting smoking greatly reduces the chances for developing these serious health complications or placing others at risk.
The Importance of Health Promotion
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recently announced $1.01 billion in grant-funding opportunities for health promotion. These grant programs emerged directly from the Affordable Care Act (PPACA).
According to Michael O'Donnell (2012) in 2010 Medicaid spending by the federal government totaled $273 billion or 7.3% of the total federal budget. State governments spent $127 billion on Medicaid in 2009. This figure represents 9.9% of all state budgets. This level of spending not to mention the inevitable annual increases will be difficult, if not impossible, for states and the federal government to maintain in the future.
It is estimated that tobacco use, inactivity, and poor nutrition cause 70% of all chronic diseases. These diseases account for approximately 75% of all medical costs in the United States, furthermore they account for 83% of all Medicaid costs and 96% of all Medicare costs. Rates of smoking, obesity and chronic diseases are significantly greater in the low-income populations eligible for Medicaid.
Definition of Heath and Health Promotion
According to Charles B. Corbin ("Dimensions of Wellness," NDI) health and wellness may be defined as "a multidimensional state of being describing the existence of positive health in an individual as exemplified by quality of life and a sense of well-being." These dimensions of wellness include: social wellness, occupational wellness, spiritual wellness, physical wellness, intellectual wellness, emotional wellness, environmental wellness, financial wellness, mental wellness, and medical wellness.
Health promotion is the practice of making positive contributions to the health status of individuals, families, and communities by providing information and education that supports family unity community commitment and traditional spirituality. It is also the promotion of healthy ideas and concepts to motivate individuals to adopt healthy behaviors. The World Health Organization (WHO) says health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control and improve their health. Health promotion is a social and political process encompassing actions directed at improving the skills and capabilities of individuals and actions directed at changing social, environmental, and economic conditions to enhance public and individual health ("Definition of Health Promotion," NDI).
Health Belief Model
The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors by examining the attitudes and beliefs of individuals. The HBM was first developed in the 1950s by social psychologists Hochbaum, Rosenstock and Kegels working in the U.S. Public Health Services. The model was developed in response to the failure of a free tuberculosis (TB) health screening program. Since then, the HBM has been adapted to explore a variety of long- and short-term health behaviors (Health Belief Model, 2010).
The HBM is based on the understanding that a person will take a health-related action if that person feels a negative health condition can be avoided, has a positive expectation that this action will avoid a negative health condition, and a belief they can successfully accomplish the health-related action. The HBM can be understood as four perceptions that encompass the perceived threats and net benefits of the health related action, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits and perceived barriers. These concepts account for an individual's readiness to act. Cues to action, that is strategies and how to information are used to instigate the health- related action. In 1988 the concept of self-efficacy was added to help the HBM better fit the challenges of changing habitual unhealthy behaviors (Health Belief Model, 2010).
Social Cognitive Models
Social Learning Theory
In Social Learning Theory people are "agentic operators in their life course, not just on-looking hosts of brain mechanisms orchestrated by environmental events." Environmental issues appear in three forms, imposed environment, selected environment and constructed environment. The theory subscribes to a model of emergent interactive agency. Bandura (1999) describes the human mind as generative, creative, proactive, and self-reflective. People's behavior and decisions are influenced by triadic reciprocal causation. This model factors in the form of cognitive, affective, and biological events and their influence on each other another bi-directionally. Thoughts serve as determinative functions. This theory also holds that human agency involves self-organization, along with proactive, self-reflective and self-regulative mechanisms. Human agency is implemented through direct personal agency, through proxy agency (relying on the efforts of others), and by collective agency. These influences cause individuals to assess thoughts about future courses of action to suit ever-changing situations, organize and deploy the selected options, evaluate the adequacy of their thinking based on the effects which their actions produce, and make whatever changes may be necessary to produce the optimal outcome.
Diffusion of Innovations Theory
Diffusion of Innovations Theory seeks to explain how and why new ideas and practices are adopted, with timelines potentially spread out over long periods. The way in which innovations are communicated to different parts of society and the subjective opinions associated with the innovations are important factors in how quickly diffusion, or spreading, occurs. Factors that affect the rate of innovation diffusion include the mix of rural to urban population within a society, the society's level of education and the extent of industrialization and development. Different societies are likely to have different adoption rates for different types of innovations (Rogers & Scott, 1997).
Changing life styles, habits, beliefs or self-image can be difficult undertaking and for many may seem impossible. However change is a process and there are steps that must be taken in order to make lasting changes. The Stages of Change model helps health care workers to understand destructive behaviors and assists in recognizing a client's place in the change process. This model involves six stages that take a person from the beginning, learning to indentify the problem, to the end, living without the problem (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1984).
In the first stage, pre-contemplation, an individual may not even recognize there is a problem. An individual is not yet thinking about changing behavior directly, and possibly believes that others are overreacting to them and their behaviors. Pre-contemplation can be broken down to four categories: Reluctant -- may not have enough information to identify the problem; Rebellious -- are so habituated to their behaviors that they become hostile or resistant; Resigned -- believe…[continue]
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Health Behavior The "Theories At A Glance" manual discussed a variety of healthy behaviors. Select two theories that can be used to explain why people behave the way they do. Discuss the basic premise and constructs of the theories you choose. Cite two examples of how each theory could be used to explain a health behavior. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) The relationship that exists between behavior and attitudes, beliefs and intention
" (AAFP, nd) The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAFP, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAFP,
Antipsychotic Medication and the Physical Health Problems of the Patient With Mental Illness More and more attention is now being given to the mental disorders especially in U.S. And due to this increase in attention an increase has also been noticed in the treatment of these mental health issues (Zuvekas, 2005). About 30% of the total U.S. population that is between the ages of 18-52 is being affected by mental health
Lectures, on the other hand, provide information for helping people in Contemplation move into Preparation and Action." (Lach et al., p. 91) Partners: Partners for execution of this intervention should include local health organizations such as area clinics, hospitals and long-term care facilities as well as the local chapter of the AARP. Their support will provide the project with direct channels of communication for outreach and ongoing involvement in collective and
Healthy Employee Pay Less for Insurance Premiums? Statement of the Issue The objective of this work is to examine whether the healthy employee should contribute less towards their health insurance premium than employees who are less healthy. Employers are more often offering wellness and health promotion programs focused on promoting good health among their employees and employee's families. Driving this movement is the rising cost of health insurance, as well as
Refined Solution A Solution Refinement for Individual Smoking Cessation Original Issue: Cigarette-smoking, tobacco addiction and nicotine dependency are widespread and permeating public health concerns. Indeed, the combination of the high rate of addiction to tobacco products and the clear empirical relationship between these products and a number of critical negative and even fatal health outcomes qualifies this is a substantial problem requiring a direct solution. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), "smoking
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed. Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not