Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
An Inconvenient Truth
In Al Gore's documentary an Inconvenient Truth, he makes some very pertinent points about the issue of global warming. Included in the documentary are the following topics.
a) Effects of Global Warming:
Gore uses graphs to clearly illustrate some of the dangerous ramifications of global warming. One chart shows the increasing amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and data which indicates a rise in temperature is the result of this additional carbon dioxide. The average amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere used to be between 180 and 280 parts per million (ppm). It is now above 400 ppm. Gore and the experts in the film estimate that it will rise to 600 ppm.
b) Melting Glaciers:
He asserts that the increased temperature is leading to melting of glaciers. He uses photographs as evidence of his assertion. The researchers also say that these are just some of the things that are linked to global warming and predict worse to come.
c) Political Suggestions:
Gore makes different suggestions for how people can alleviate the problems of global warming. One suggestion he makes is making more energy-efficient cars. People, he says, can help by turning down their temperatures and using less electricity.
d) Causes of Global Warming:
Gore blames three things for the global warming. He blames rapid population growth which makes sense considering the world has grown by a billion people in about a decade, technologies which increase electricity usage, and people not thinking about the dangers to the environment.
e) Advocating for Change:
In order to prevent the increasing likelihood of global warming, everyone must make attempts to do what they can to help the situation. If everyone contributes to the solution then there is a chance of saving the earth.
1. a) Explain the basic functions of the major organ systems of the body, and b) how they interact with each other.
The ten major organ systems with the body are:
a) the circulatory system which transports nutrients to cells and tissue
b) cardiovascular system which is comprised of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
c) lymphatic system which is the lymph nodes, thymus, and the spleen
d) digestive system which breaks down food
e) endocrine system which maintains the growth of the body
f) integumentary system which protects the insides of the body from damage and stores fluids
g) muscular system which allows the body to move
h) nervous system which responds to the external world and allows the organs to function
i) reproductive system which allows the body to produce offspring
j) respiratory system which allows the person to breathe
k) skeletal system which both supports the body and protects the organs
l) urinary system which allows the person to evacuate waste from the body
2. Explain what goes on in each of the four stages of the digestive process: a) ingestion, b) digestion, c) absorption, and d) elimination.
a) Ingestion: food enters the gastrointestinal tract through the mouth
b) Digestion: food is broken down into nutrients and waste
c) Absorption: vitamins and nutrients is absorbed into the stomach
d) Elimination: waste matter is removed from the body via urination or excretion
3. Describe the specific digestive functions and the digestive glands associated with a) the oral cavity, b) esophagus, c) stomach, d) small intestine, and e) large intestine.
a) oral cavity: has the mouth which allows the teeth to chew and tongue to assist and salivary gland to moisten the food
b) esophagus: propel food to the stomach
c) stomach: holds the hydrochloric acid which breaks down the food
d) small intestine: final digestion and absorption occur
e) large intestine: recovers water and electrolytes from digested food, formation and storage of waste, and microbe development
4. a) What is homeostasis? b) Why is it so critical for survival of the organism?
a) Homeostasis is the body's ability to maintain balance of acids and internal functions and bacteria.
b) If there were no homeostasis in the body, then any new environment or the introduction of any foreign entity in the body would stop the body from functioning
5. a) Describe the organs of the human excretory system and b) their roles in osmoregulation and waste removal.
a) Lungs: removes excess carbon
b) Liver: makes urea and uric acid
c) Skin: removes excess water, salt, urea, and uric acid
d) Urinary system: kidneys filter blood and make urine
6. How do nephrons work?
Nephrons filter the blood and remove everything that isn't either protein or the actual blood.
7. How do humans move air in and out of the body?
Inhalation moves air into the lungs. The cavity surrounding the lungs creates pressure and the lungs exhale carbon dioxide.
8. What is the mechanism by which breathing is automatically controlled by the body?
The brain controls breathing automatically in the body. The inspiratory center and expiratory center are in the medulla oblongata. The pneumotaxic center and apneustic center are on the pons area of the brain.
9. Name the various components of the blood, and explain their roles.
Red cells transport oxygen from the lungs to all the tissues in the body. White cells fight diseases in the body. Platelets allow the blood to clot. Plasma carries the red cells, white cells, and platelets.
10. Compare the structure and function of a) arteries, b) capillaries, and c) veins.
a) Arteries: carry blood away from the heart
b) Capillaries: 1 cell thick; connect arterioles and venules and allow for exchange of nutrients and waste matter
c) Veins: carries blood towards the heart
11. Explain what goes on in the capillaries in terms of exchange with the tissues.
Capillaries allow for the exchange of fluids, gases, nutrients, and waste matter between the blood and the tissues.
12. Trace the flow of blood through the human body, including the chambers of the heart and the major vessels that enter and leave the heart.
The blood moves from the right atrium, into the right ventricle, then the pulmonary artery, followed by the lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta, the organs, vena cavae, and then back into the right atrium.
13. a) Describe the nonspecific defenses against infection and b) discuss how each one works.
a) Anatomical barriers: skin acts as first line of defense, cilia keeps air passages from getting microorganisms, chemical factors: fatty acids inhibit growth of bacteria; tears, salvia, and snot break down bacteria, biological factors: good bacteria can prevent bad bacteria from growing
b) Complement system leads to vascular permeability, coagulation system lets blood clot, lactoferrin and transferrin binds iron, interferons limit virus replication, lysozyme breaks down cell walls of bacteria
c) Cellular barriers: neutrophils kill bacteria, macrophages also kill bacteria, NK and LAK kill viruses, eosinophils kill parasites
14. Explain the immune response, describing the organs and tissues involved and the overall characteristics of the response.
The immune response is the way your body reacts to bacterial and viral infection in the body and tries to fight the illnesses. You have innate immunity, acquired immunity, passive immunity, and blood components. The organs that help are called the lymphoid organs.
15. Describe the basic structure and function of a) the neuron and b) the nervous system.
a) The human nervous system is made up of the body parts which are called the nerves. Neurons are the individual nerve cells which make up the system. Nerves are responsible for sending messages from the brain to the body and back from the body to the brain.
16. a) Explain how neurons convey information along the length and b) between neurons using neurotransmitters. C) What are some of the ways drugs act on the nervous system?
a) Neurons respond to stimuli, they then conduct impulses and communicate with other neurons of the nervous system.
b) Neurotransmitters are chemicals which let information from one neuron go to another.
c) Drugs can bind to receptors in the nervous system and can increase the activity. Depressants can diminish the action of the nervous system. Stimulants can increase actions. Opioids can dull senses and make the nerves unable to inform the brain about pain. Hallucinogens can distort sensations and confuse the nervous system.
17. Distinguish between the structure and function of a) the vertebrate peripheral and b) central nervous system.
The central nervous system controls the majority of the nervous system and the neurons related to the brain. The vertebrate peripheral refers to nerves that are linked to the nervous system and are connected to the skin, organs, muscles, and exocrine glands.
18. a) What is a hormone? b) How do hormones differ from neurotransmitters?
a) A hormone is a chemical that is released from a cell or gland that sends out messages that affect other cells.
b) A hormone is released directly into the bloodstream whereas a neurotransmitter sends an electrical charge from one nerve to another.
19. a) Describe the anatomy of the human male and female reproductive systems, and b) the formation and maturation of gametes.…[continue]
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