Human Rights Violations of Migrant essay

Download this essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from essay:

They worked in agriculture, fishing and fish processing and small-scale manufacturing firms in Thailand. Thailand is also a major destination for cross-border trafficked women and children in the Mekong region. Records showed that more than 1 million migrant workers registered in the government (Human Trafficking).

The study also said that these said sectors rely on and need cheap labor in order to achieve or maintain a competitive edge in their respective industries (Human Trafficking 2006). Migrant workers filled the demand. Local Thai workers would not want to work for below-minimum wages. More than 40% of foreign domestic workers in Thailand were paid only Bt 1,000 or less a month. Less or close to nine out of 10 at 89% received Bt3,000 or less. More than half of all interviewed employers in the mentioned industries believed that their migrant employees should not be allowed to leave the work premises during working hours without permission. A Cambodian domestic helper reported that she worked for her employer for two years all day but could not go to bed until 2 in the morning, got up at 5:00 in the morning and never got paid. Her employer also slapped, hit or pinched her. A fishing boat teenage worker said he and his workmates worked all day and night without stopping. They had not been physically beaten but were scared of being thrown out of the boat and beaten with heavy hooks like other crew members (Human Trafficking).

Malaysia

Malaysian newspapers reported that more than 15 million foreign nationals entered the country in 2004 and only more than 9 million left that year (Hector et al. 2004). This meant that more than 5 million or 38% overstayed. Analysts believed that migrant workers could account for 30% of Malaysia's current workforce. They welcomed this because Malaysian businesses could benefit from cheaper labor from workers for their lower-paid sectors of construction, agriculture and services. Countries providing cheap labor include the Philippines, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Nepal and India (Hector et al.).

For their contributions to the Malaysian economy, many migrant workers suffer extreme difficulties (Hector et al. 2004). According to Amnesty International, they worked under substandard conditions, had no access to basic services and faced risks of physical and sexual abuse. They contended with weak or anomalous recruitment regulations and had limited legal protection. They were also opened to exploitation by recruitment agencies and employers. Undocumented migrant workers suffered even more. The government persists in tracking them down while recruiting other migrant workers to replace them. In all the stages of the process, employers, the police, immigration officials and unscrupulous recruitment agencies violate these workers' basic rights. The crackdowns are a syndicated, multi-agency initiative, called Ops Nyah Bersepadu II. Launched in February 2000, the initiative managed to deport 200,000 undocumented migrant workers. One agency, Ops Sayang, hunted down sex workers. "Ops Pintu" was assigned to undocumented foreign domestic workers. The "Ops Mahir" agency tracked down undocumented migrant workers in their places of work. In implementing the crackdowns, the police used bulldozers to destroy the migrant workers' makeshift homes. In 2004, a citizens' volunteer corps, called Rela, was authorize to arrest undocumented workers. It could also search travel documents, arrest, detain and enter premises and hiding places (Hector et al.).

As a consequence of these operations, prisons soon overflowed with migrant workers (Hector et al. 2004). According to the Deputy Home Minister, more than 25% of jail inmates were foreigners in 2003. The following year, there were more foreign prisoners than Malaysians. Some of them remained in detention even after the end of their prison terms. Immigration detention centers also continue to accept more migrants and, in the process, increase the incidence of abuses and the overall poor conditions of the centers. And in addition to imprisonment and deportation, migrants are subjected to corporal punishment such as mandatory caning and whipping (Hector et al.).

Singapore

Singapore

This country's 160,000 migrant domestic workers are mostly women (Jones 2008).

Ironically, Singapore's labor laws still do not extend key protection to domestic workers. The situation, thus, opens the workers to exploitation. Most of them come from Indonesia, the Philippines and Sri Lanka. They leave their families and countries in search of more profitable sources of income for themselves and their loved ones. One in six Singapore families hires a domestic worker through several but inadequately monitored recruitment agencies. A 2005 report by Human Rights Watch described the working conditions of domestic workers in Singapore. Between 1999 and 2005, 147 migrant domestic workers died of work-related accidents or suicide. They fell or jumped from residential buildings. Research revealed that these workers experienced poor working conditions, anxiety over debts to recruiting agencies, social isolation and prolonged confinement. They work 13-19 hours a day all seven days a week. They are not allowed to leave their place of work. They typically earn less than half of what local workers earn for the same functions. They are forced to give up their pay for the first 4 to 10 months to repay their recruiting agency. Sometimes, their agent or employer manipulates details of the work agreement so that migrant workers are held up as forced labor (Jones).

Cambodia

The largest group of migrant workers in this country comes from Vietnam (Mekong

Migration Network 2005). They have lived as a large community for many generations in this country. Temporary and long-term migrants enter Cambodia as well. Many of these long-term migrants run small businesses and hire new Vietnamese migrant workers as craftsmen. Others work as fishermen and hired laborers, including sex workers. These workers contend with discrimination, language barriers, unsanitary living and working conditions, limited health care access, lack of legal documentation, deportation and corrupt police and border authorities (Mekong Migration Network).

Because of poverty, debt, the lack of land, jobs and economic opportunities drive Cambodians to seek a better life in other countries (Mekong Migration Network 2005). Within Cambodia, life is rural areas has proved unsustainable. People in these areas migrate to the urban areas or abroad in order to survive. They find no better alternatives to migration. Yet Cambodia does not have adequate migration policies. Its main policy document is outdated and provides only for the recruitment and interaction with licensed recruitment agencies. It has no or does not have sufficient labor attaches in its embassies in receiving countries to help its migrant workers (Mekong Migrant Network).

Why Irregular Migration is Undesirable

Unscrupulous foreign job recruits provide migrant workers a false picture of how it is to enter and work in another country (Wickramasekera 2000). These workers are thus not aware that an irregular status opens them to various rights abuses and exploitation. They may be paid the lowest wages. They may be blackmailed by the local mafia, labor brokers, and criminal elements. The receiving country will not feel obliged to treat them with decency because of their irregular status. On the whole, migrant workers of irregular status have no legal safeguards for health and lives, cannot join unions or bargain, ask for fair wages, seek compensation for illness or injury and have no security of employment (Wickaramasekera). #

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APMRN. 2009. Issues paper from the republic of South Korea. Migration Issues in the Asia Pacific. Asia Pacific Migration Research Network: United Nations Educational,

Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved on November 18, 2009 from http://www.unesco.org/most/apmrnw12.htm

Deen, Thalif. 2006. UN probes abuse of migrant workers worldwide. Asian Tribune:

World Institute for Asian Studies. Retrieved on November 18, 2009 from http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=mode/2792

Hector, Charles et al. 2004. Malaysia. Asian Migrant Yearbook: Asian Migrant Centre.

Retrieved on November 18, 2009 from http://www.asian-migrants.org/index.php?

Human Rights Watch. 2007. South Korea -- country summary. The Refugee Law

Reader. Retrieved on November 18, 2009 from http://www.refugeelawreader.org/1160/Human_Rights_Watch_Country_summary_South_Korea

Human Trafficking. 2006. Human rights violations of migrant workers in Thailand.

Humantrafficking.org: Academy for Educational Development. Retrieved on November 18, 2009 from http://www.humantrafficking.org/updates/568

Jones, Rochelle.2008. Migrant domestic workers in Singapore. AWID Women's Rights:

Association for Women's Rights in Development. Retrieved on November 18, 2009

from http://awid.org/eng/Issues-and-Analysis/Issues-and-Analysis/Migrant-Domestic- Workers-in-Singapore

Mekong Migration Network. 2005. Cambodia. Asian Migrant Yearbook: Asian Migrant

Centre. Retrieved on November 18, 2009 from http://asian-migrants.org/files/AMY_2005_Cambodia.pdf

OMCT. 2004. South Korea forced deportation and denial of medical attention for migrant workers. Organization Mondiale Centre la Torture. Retrieved on November

18, 2009 from http://www.omct.org/index.php?id=SCR&lang=eng&actualPageNumber=1&article1d=4769articleSet_Appeal

Wickramasekera, Piyasiri. 2000. Asian labor migration issues and challenges in an era of globalization. International Migration Programme: International Labor

Organization. Retrieved on November 18, 2009 from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/migrant/download/imp/imp57e.pdf

Human Trafficking. Human Rights Violations of Migrant…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"Human Rights Violations Of Migrant" (2009, November 19) Retrieved December 2, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/human-rights-violations-of-migrant-17321

"Human Rights Violations Of Migrant" 19 November 2009. Web.2 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/human-rights-violations-of-migrant-17321>

"Human Rights Violations Of Migrant", 19 November 2009, Accessed.2 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/human-rights-violations-of-migrant-17321

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Human Rights Crisis in the Meatpacking Industry

    Human Rights Crisis in the Meatpacking Industry Meatpacking Industry Safety Standards Meatpacking workers have historically been exposed to some of the most dangerous work conditions, resulting in one of the highest injury rates of any occupation in the United States. Between the years 1980 and 1985 the injury rate was three-fold higher for meatpacking plant workers than for all other manufacturing industries (Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA], 1988) and in 2000

  • Ngos & Human Rights in Africa Non Governmental

    Ngos & Human Rights in Africa Non-governmental organizations have had an unprecedented effect on international human rights in the African system. NGOs have been recognized for their forward thinking ability in improving international human rights in Africa. NGOs participation in the African Human Rights system has been in two ways. The first is through international and government commissions like the OAU, with some having rights to participate in public meetings. This presents

  • Enforcement of Non Universal Human Rights

    Cultural relativism contends that no one culture possesses a more correct value system than any other. "There is no one standard set of morals," Sullivan (2006) argues, which one can use as a base to: "objectively judge all cultures, so comparing morality between cultures -- which retain independent and distinct histories and influences -- is basically futile" (¶ 9). As the movement is rooted in the world community's response to

  • Migrant Workers

    Migrant Workers Majority of the immigration policies are centralised and come from Federal level. However, local and state governments are taking more interest in solving problems related to immigration. Lately steps have been taken on local and state level to set up sanctuary cities, laws passed to prevent illegal immigrants to get a job and formation of official link between Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and police departments (Johnson and Hill,

  • Human Trafficking a Global and

    [NAFI, 2007, pg 8] on the other hand there are many adult women who unfortunately end up as forced laborers. These people happen to be victims of false promises who were lured with the idea of well paid jobs and a higher standard of living. The traffickers often employ psychological tactics in forcing their victims to submission. Routinely the travel and identification documents of the victims are seized and

  • Human Security Origin and Development

    It closely links human rights violations with national and international insecurities. And the concept enhances development thinking by expanding real freedoms already enjoyed by people. Protecting security, therefore, urgently requires a new consensus among all countries, whether developed or developing. It must aim at reviewing current foreign policies and aiming at creating real opportunities for people's safety and dignity. Rethinking the Concept Human security focuses more on generalized poverty than average

  • Human Trafficking Causes and Motivating Forces There s

    Human Trafficking: Causes and Motivating Forces There's no doubt that human trafficking is one of the saddest evils of our day: "On the worldwide black market, the third most profitable commodity after illegal weapons and drugs is human flesh: women and girls from all over Eastern Europe, sold for sex by the networks of organized crime that became entrenched in the aftermath after the fall of communism" (Malarek, 2011). Other


Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved