The focus of this research on international marketing and its applicability in an international context is the main contribution of this study. The addition to the literature is using the cultural framework of proportion of immigrants in the society to understand how cultural differences affect the applicability of international marketing. That is, the paper will expand on other international marketing papers to present a wider look at how international marketing differs form other countries. The study also refines the analytical framework by exploring firms in Dublin, Ireland in the business sector -- the sample as chosen from this population to get the unique perspective of these firms. How are modern business strategies that use direct marketing tools and new technological processes affecting specific sectors in the society? Also, what is the role of firms in Dublin, Ireland as it relates to the immigrant population? These are some of the major questions that will be answered as the literature framework is developed to directly analyze the two main hypotheses above.
This research is a necessary addition to the literature since it will examine a rather profound issue, the influence of international marketing on business activities and provide a clear understanding of the impact of culture on direct marketing within an international context. The overall methodology employed will not be opinion-based nor will it be a position paper, but with the use of content analysis on the literature as well as sample of businesses in proportion of immigrants in the society's business sector, the paper will provide a clear analysis that is scientific in nature and will be used to test the research questions related to the impact of international marketing the business sector in proportion of immigrants in the society.
Research on such a micro level of business strategies that is specific to a particular sector within a particular country will be infrequent but useful since it will use more general theories to explore more specific markets and sectors which can produce some insightful results. Specifically the application of direct marketing and database marketing in proportion of immigrants in the society within an international marketing context.
The following major issues within the literature also provided a guide for this study.
1) What are the major arguments presented within the literature that highlights the applicability of international marketing within an international market?
2) What is the role of international marketing; especially for proportion of immigrants in the society's firms in Dublin, Ireland?
3) How can these can international marketing techniques be instituted across different cultures?
These business issues are expansive and will provide a thorough analysis of the general framework for the research issue -- the impact of international marketing on firms in Dublin, Ireland in the business sector. In addition, the research questions will provide an analysis on the nature and composition of firms in Dublin. However the main purpose to provide a clear understanding of the applicability of direct/database marketing for proportion of immigrants in the society's firms in Dublin, Ireland within an international context and the role of cultural differences within the overall framework.
SECTION 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
There has been a plethora of work that examines the applicability of direct/database marketing within an international context. This paper will use this theoretical basis to look at the applicability of international marketing applicability with the secondary control variable related to the proportion of immigrants in the society and also analyse how culture affects both of these marketing strategies. The review of literature presented in this section will be organized as follows:-
The applicability of direct/database marketing within an international context,
An examination of the role and importance of small and medium sized enterprises (firms in Dublin, Ireland),
Communication and cultural issues within the business environment that may have an impact on the marketing process, and The innovative environment that has been provided thorough the integration of direct marketing and database marketing.
The literature is organized to present the major research related to different aspects examined within the research questions. The focus will be on major studies that examined the direct/database marketing in an international context many of which used a formal cultural model or methodology to identify the cultural challenges that affect these marketing strategies. There will also be a brief examination of the role of small and medium sized enterprises in proportion of immigrants in the society, since this can provide general overviews of international marketing, the historical context of the current analysis, as well as a methodological framework related to Hofstede's hybrid analytical exploration of business development issues.
THE IMPACT OF CULTURE ON INTERNATIONAL MARKETING: AN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING CONTEXT
The research question being examined is well-laden, however, the theme that will be continuously explored relates to international marketing, especially as it relates to firms in Dublin, Ireland. According to Hutchinson et al. (2007) empirical work has shown that firms in Dublin, Ireland "that have not fully exploited opportunities in the domestic market and have a strong brand identity are suited for international activity." This activity can be supported via direct or database marketing. However, there are specific aspects of international marketing that have to be addressed before it can be readily applied across different cultures -- Hutchinson et al. (2007) focused on these issues with their empirical findings to explain the role of firms in Dublin, Ireland within the international marketing realm.
The multi-case approach used by Hutchison et al. (2007) found that international marketing activities where applicable to firms in Dublin, Ireland within an international context needed to take into consideration known 'push and pull' factors. Push factors related to industry competition, economy, legislation, and the domestic situation, while the pull factors concentrated on economic and political stability in international markets and the opportunity for profits within the international markets.
Ojala and Tyravinen (2007) presented research to suggest that cultural distance was a major factor in determining international marketing strategies within the international marketing context, even firms in Dublin, Ireland also faces similar criteria. The authors found that international marketing from an international perspective allowed firms in Dublin, Ireland to expand the market by offering a large markets size and helped to shape market entry for firms.
Ojala and Tyrvainen (2007) used empirical data to show firms in Dublin, Ireland strategies for international marketing within an international context and found that cultural distance as measured by the composite Hofstede's four cultural dimensions of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and masculinity was a major determinant of market penetration and entry priority of firms in Dublin, Ireland and the use of international marketing strategies.
Closely related to the analysis of international marketing and the challenges that international marketing faces in this context is managing the global supply chain from a firm's perspective. Tan, Smith, and Saad (2003) shows that international marketing has to change when being analyzed in a global context. The analysis focused on how cultures affected strategic development and marketing in an international context. Tan, Smith and Saad (2003) used Hofstede's cultural framework with the five dimensions of culture relating to values in the workplace. Hall's classified cultures in terms of high context and low context examples and how culture variables such as relationships, communication, authority, and agreement affect marketing activities. Laurent's culture model was also used to highlight how authority, role formulation, and hierarchical systems affect how the type of marketing strategies that are implemented within a region. The authors also used classified patterns of cross-cultural business behaviour fro Guirdham's model to understand how marketing strategies are affected by different types of cultural behaviours or variables.
The framework for international marketing activities and aspects of direct marketing that was affected by cultural differences was based on the power dynamic and differences between cultures affected how marketing activities could be organized, management control differed across cultures as such techniques utilized across nations defined the differences that existed when implementing international marketing techniques, and organisational and social issues that are exacerbated by cultural differences can impact how successful marketing activities are within a global context, (Tan, Smith, and Saad 2003).
Maravelak et al. (2006) presented a model to identify the difficulties firms in Dublin, Ireland faced when trying to improve performance and enhance innovativeness especially when expanding internationally. The paper found that cultural differences were important when since they affected product, process, and management dimensions that are considered important aspects of international marketing strategies.
Usunier and Cestre (2007) performed a very useful analysis to highlight how "consumers make associations between products and countries" and found that international marketing strategies are not universal or can be implemented in all environments due to cultural differences.
Cultural dimensions such as masculinity, higher power distances, and economies that are not market economies are less likely to have success with international marketing due to infrastructural differences, (Usunier and Cestre 2007).
Hutchinson et al. (2007) found that marketing strategies across global economies is affected by cultural dimensions, more specifically it was found that brand identity, product image, market…