Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
In addition to the highly qualified mandates of NCLB there are also requirements to use research-based education practices over effective-based education practices.
The different levels of ability combined with the various qualifiers of special education students present a difficulty in determining the best course of research-based learning. In addition the ability to track and report such learning becomes difficult at best, impossible at worst.
Given the wide spectrum of students that qualify for special education services there is a demonstrable difference in the services they are provided.
The students in special education today, receive a combination of education instruction. When they are able to appropriately benefit and learn in a mainstream environment the federal government dictates that they do. If their particular disability provides the need for accommodations to that mainstream education, such as oral testing, or un-timed lessons the school has provided that as well through the use of special education staff members. With NCLB the special education educators are finding themselves between the rock and the hard place in theory.
Demanding that every educator providing lessons to special education students is "highly qualified" in the core subject in which they are providing those lessons sets up obstacles to the very individualized education methods that are currently in use, and in keeping with the landmark Brown vs. Board of Education case of four past decades.
In addition the NCLB mandate is virtually unfunded at the federal level. This means that school districts across the nation are ordered to comply with the special education qualifiers with regard to "highly qualified" but there are no funds forthcoming from federal coffers to pay for such educators.
In addition, because IDEA ensures the right to a free appropriate public education, some research and policy questions (e.g., Are IEPs effective in promoting student progress?) may not be addressable through research methodologies that require random assignment to a "nontreatment" group or condition. Last, in special education, students with disabilities are often "clustered" in classrooms, and in experimental group design, the classroom rather than the student becomes the unit on which researchers base random assignment, data analysis, and power estimates (Harris, 2005)."
Just as it is impossible to achieve one definition or term that can encompass all special education student disabilities, one research method to accurately define, record and report teaching methods and qualifications of those teachers in the field of special education becomes difficult.
A central theme advocated by IES is to focus research on the questions of effectiveness and to employ high-quality research methods to address these questions (Whitehurst). The gold standard for research methodology that addresses these issues is the use of RCT methodology (Harris, 2005)."
When it comes to special education there are other methodologies including single subject design studies that might provide a more comfortable fit for the context of research.
The discovery and development of new effective practices may require researchers to work in naturalistic contexts where they may not be able to exert experimental control and/or in design experiments, or where they have the flexibility of changing certain elements of an intervention based on students' responses. Such descriptive and process-oriented research may require the use of qualitative methods (Harris, 2005). Educational researchers have acknowledged the value of mixing methodologies to provide a complementary set of information that would more effectively (than a single method) inform practice (Harris, 2005)."
The primary concern of NCLB when it comes to the benchmarking of special education efforts is that the methods being used by the schools are not measurable by research design, thereby not verifiable as to their success rates.
When NCLB was being designed there were concerns brought forth that the field of special education had yet to design a systematically measurable guideline that could specify the levels of evidence that could be used to identify practices as evidence based and effective.
Congress had the desire to see evidence that the public funding for special education was being used wisely and effectively for the special education students in its care.
The end result was the provision for special education in NCLB regarding highly qualified teachers and data gathering and reporting to the federal levels of education regarding the success of methods being used.
The demand for highly qualified special education teachers came from the federal belief that highly qualified teachers provide a better chance for quality education and successful learning in the field of special education.
The positive side of the mandate is that the special education teacher shortage that the nation has experienced in recent years may be corrected with the demand for special education teachers qualified in the core curriculum (McLeskey, 2004).
The negative aspect of such mandates is the fact that NCLB is unfunded, which may drive millions of special education students into mainstream environments in areas that they are not able to learn in just to ensure that they are being instructed by "highly qualified" teachers thus basically defeating the entire purpose of special education.
Given all of the mandates included with NCLB it is important to revisit the ethical vs. empirical approach in the driving of instructional practices. While research and ethical approaches are important factors in many arenas of education, and do serve a valuable purpose in the field of education, empirical research would be the better choice in designing instructional practice.
One of the core values that came out of the landmark decision of Brown vs. Board of Education was the basic recognition that each special education student is individual even within the disability label that he or she receives. Because they have been found to benefit from a tailored program instead of a one size fits all program, the very nature of empirical instruction practices provide the flexibility required to provide them with the best education they are able to receive.
Statistical research has a place in the field of education. It can provide general gaps in the process, that can be addressed as those gaps become evident. However, empirical findings have the ability to provide what makes the difference between special education and mainstream students. Using empirical data to drive instructional practices actually provides support for the "Individualize Education Plan" program and allows each student and each teacher to work together to find the fit. On a broader-based view the use of empirical data allows instruction to be driven by what works rather than relying in instructional paths that are used because the scientific data say they "should" work.
Special education is a highly specialized field that is largely driven by individual needs and designs. While ethical and research driven information is valuable to the design of special education components, the empirical design would be the best fit when it comes to instructional practices.
____(2005) Special Education Teachers Up in Arms Over NCLB Certification Requirements Atlanta Journal
Chambless, D.L., & Hollon, S.D. (1998). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 7-18.
Cobb, P., Confrey, J., diSessa, a., Lehrer, R., & Schauble, L. (2003). Design experiments in educational research. Educational Researchers, 32(1), 9-13.
Davies, P. (1999). What is evidence-based education? British Journal of Educational Studies, 47, 108-121
Harris, Karen R (2005) Research in special education: scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional Children
Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change (3rd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.
Gersten, R., Fuchs, L.S., Compton, D., Coyne, M., Greenwood, C., & Innocenti, M. (2004). Quality indicators for group experimental and quasi-experimental research in special education. Exceptional Children, 71, 149-164.
Grad, R., Macaulay, a.C., & Warner, M. (2001). Teaching evidence-based medical care: Description and evaluation. Family Medicine, 33, 602-606.
Guralnick, M.J. (1999). Second-generation research in the field of early intervention. In M. Guralnick (Ed.), the effectiveness of early intervention (pp. 3-22). Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes.
Habermas, J. (1971). Knowledge and human interests. Boston: Beacon Press.
Horner, R., Carr, E., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2004). The use of single-subject design research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Exceptional Children, 71,165-179.
McLeskey, James (2004) Critical issues in special education teacher supply and demand: overview. Journal of Special Education
Newell, R. (2002). Research and its relationship to nurse education: Focus and capacity. Nurse Education Today, 22, 278-284.
Oakley, a. (2002). Social science and evidence-based everything: The case of education. Educational Review, 54, 277-286.
Odom, S.L., & Strain, P.S. (2002). Evidence-based practice…[continue]
"NCLB And Special Education No" (2007, March 04) Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/nclb-and-special-education-no-39635
"NCLB And Special Education No" 04 March 2007. Web.28 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/nclb-and-special-education-no-39635>
"NCLB And Special Education No", 04 March 2007, Accessed.28 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/nclb-and-special-education-no-39635
Impact on Equity One major point regarding equity as applied to performance-based assessment is made by Yale Professor Emeritus Edmund Gordon (Dietel, Herman and Knuth, 1991). "We begin with the conviction that it is desirable that attention be given to questions of equity early in the development of an assessment process rather than as an add-on near the end of such work....The task then is to find assessment probes (test items)
"By the 1980s, the field had moved to a functional skills model. As the evidence for this approach mounted, the field refocused on age appropriate skills and knowledge performed in authentic settings and the functional life skills curriculum became best practice. The functional, age-appropriate curricular focus resulted in these students demonstrating skills and knowledge not thought possible earlier" (Quenemoen, 2008). In the 1990s, added significant new practices were acknowledged as
Special Education According to the Federal Laws of the United States of America, "Special Education means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability [IDEA 97-300.26(a)]." The revised statutes of Arizona defines a child with disability as "a child who is at least three but less than twenty-two years of age, who has been evaluated and found to have
Thus, efforts aimed at helping teachers to avoid harmful stereotyping of students often begin with activities designed to raise teachers' awareness of their unconscious biases." (1989) Cotton goes on the relate that there are specific ways in which differential expectations are communicated to students according to the work of: "Brookover, et al. (1982); Brophy (1983); Brophy and Evertson (1976); Brophy and Good (1970); Cooper and Good (1983); Cooper and
It would not only be time consuming and expensive for each classroom teacher to develop an effective basic reading skills curriculum but such a curriculum is also fraught with a high degree of error. There is compelling evidence that supports the use of scripted programs rather than teacher-developed approaches to teach complex skills (Benner, 2005). Second, apply positive behavioral supports to manage the behaviors of students with behavioral difficulties during
What works for one child is not necessarily going to work for the next. So how can one promote the use of standardized tests as the only way to measure educational learning and success? The premise of the No Child Left Behind Act is very honorable. Each child should be taught by the best teachers that there are and each school should be held accountable for making sure that
Just as physically impaired students receive the benefit of appropriate testing accommodations, so should all special needs students. Ultimately, imposing certain minimal standards of overall academic achievement in connection with graduation may, in fact, serve a beneficial purpose. However, in order to do so, it must employ standards and methods that do not unfairly penalize special education students or the educational institutions that serve them. References Bush, T., and Amundson, E. "Should