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In additon, there is the sustenance of a certain sense of uniformity in accordance with the economic accomplishments of the American society. Besides, given the continued electoral progress of the far-right parties that formally eschew anti-Semitism, and the lack of progress made by the radical, neo-Nazi or extremist groups that are often openly anti-Semitic, maintaining the distinction between these two types of groups (although the boundaries are occasionally blurred) continues to be crucial. Now when this is the overall situation, will it be wrong to ascertain that the threat of the surfacing of racism in the class rooms among the students is a distant dream!
However, this is not the real situation, though the society is apparently is in equilibrium. There have been several studies in the recent decades in this direction, and what has come out is patently horrifying. A new study has shown that racism among white college students is widespread, although not openly apparent. Sociologists studied 626 journals kept by white college students at colleges and universities across the United States and found repeated racist slurs and stereotypes such as blacks being lazy, criminal and oversexed. Publicly, however, these students showed no outward racism towards black students. The findings will be released in a new book entitled "Two-Faced Racism: Whites in the Backstage and Front stage," published this spring by Rutledge, in short days. Is there anything more to say?
Page Seven: Major Controversies if Any
In the realm of the United States of America, the notion of racism has always been a major source of controversy, since the colonial era till date. What can be the most apposite reason behind this? It should be perceived in the light of historical records and developments. From the earlier days, the country has always been dominated by a settler society, which is comprised of the religiously and ethnically diverse white people. It is also to be noted, that the major racially structured institutions include slavery, settlement, Indian reservations, segregation, residential schools (for American Indians), and internment camps. On the other hand, the concept of social stratification has occurred in the realms of employment, housing, education and government. But from the beginning of the 20 th century, the rise of political consciousness among the Blacks led to the commencement of a period of major confrontational politics, resulting into greater controversies, that almost had torn the society apart.
However, with the beginning of this consciousness, the saga of racial discrimination became largely criminalized in the mid-20th century, nevertheless, there was the persistence of the major inequalities. With the passing of the years, in spite of enactment the account of racism has given birth to major controversies, from time to time. In the recent years, the heaviset burdens of racism in the country have fallen upon Native Ameicans, Asians, African-Americans, Latin Americans, and along with this on some other immigrant groups and their descendants. There is no doubt in it that the racist attitudes, or prejudice, are still held by substantial portions of the population, leading to the rise of several controversies. To the popular studies, members of every American ethnic group have perceived racism in their dealings with other groups.
Types of Controversies: Institutional Racism
In the recent years, in the realm of the United States of America, there have been lots of controversies over the notion of Institutional Racism. Institutional Racism refers to a definite form of the practice of racism, which occurs especially in the institutions, that includes public bodies, corporations, and also the universities. In short, it is a theory that continuing aspects of the structure, permeant attitudes, and established institutions of society disadvantage some racial groups in particular, although there may not be the presence of any kind of overtly discriminatory mechanism. It has been found, that indeed there are several factors that do play a dominant role in the saga of institutional racism. There is the presence of several factors, but they are not included to that. For instance, accrued wealth/benefits from racial groups that have benefited from past discrimination, educational and occupational disadvantages faced by non-native English speakers in the United States, deep-rooted stereotypical images that are still prominent in the society (e.g. black men are likely to be criminals).
However, it is also true, that some highly acclaimed institutions are in the process of taking adequate steps for the sake of combating the so called structural disadvantages in the modern American society. In particular, regarding the case of the non-native English speakers or those raised in those homes that used to speak broken or pidgin English. It has also been found, that in a manner to put an end to the reigning controversies several states are keeping no stone unturned for the reduction of the existing educational disadvantages through the development of more multiculturally-aware curriculum. But the controversies seem unending, since almost on each day there is the appearance of a new controversy in this realm!
Contoversy Over Health
In the domain of the United States of America, there is an ever existence of controversy regarding the saga of racial differences in health and quality of life. They are often found to exist even at equivalent socioeconomic levels. Though there have also been several protest marches in different parts of the U.S., it still continues in the highest degree. What can be the best possible result? There is no doubt in it, that the concept of individual and institutional discrimination, along with the stigma of inferiority, can adversely affect health. It has been found in ample instances, that the residence in poor neighborhoods, racial bias in medical care, the stress of experiences of discrimination and the acceptance of the societal stigma of inferiority can have deleterious consequences on health. Through the invesitgative studies of the eminent researchers like Hope Landrine and Elizabeth a. Klonoff, it has come to the knowledge, that the account of racist discrimination happens to be rampant in the lives of African-Americans and as a result, is strongly related to psychiatric symptoms.
Other than this, a study on racist events in the lives of African-American women found that lifetime experiences of racism were positively related to lifetime history of both physical disease and frequency of recent common colds. The results from this study do suggest that the saga of racism can be highly detrimental to the well being of the African-Americans. The indiciation of controversy, from the physiological stress caused by racism has been documented in studies by the eminent researchers like Claude Steele, Joshua Aronson, and Steven Spencer. They together term this concept as "stereotype threat"!
Page Ten: Interesting Events
In the history of the United States of America, the growth of the Civil Rights Movement is regarded as one of the most interesting amd epoch making incidents in the recorded history. The effort of this movement towards the abolition of racial discrimination of the African-Americans, and the phase of the movement between 1954 and 1968, particularly in the South, is written in golden letters. However by the year 1966, the emergence of the Black Power Movement which lasted roughly from 1966 to 1975, enlarged and gradually eclipsed the aims of the Civil Rights Movement with the inclusion of the important demands of racial dignity, economic and political self -sufficiency, and along with it the freedom from the domination of the Whites.
Indeed, there had been several dimensions and stages in the movement that proceeded through two decades. However, the first spark of this saga is evident from the defiant stand of Rosa Parks, who on December 1, 1955, refused to get up out of her seat on a public bus to make room for a white passenger. This stance was followed by her arrest. She was tried and convicted for her unacceptable disorderly conduct and also for the violation of a local ordinance. This single incident instigated 50 African-American leaders to gather and initiate the internationally acclaimed Montgomery Bus Boycott to protest the segregation of blacks and whites on public buses. The boycott lasted for 381 days until the local ordinance segregating African-Americans and whites on public buses was lifted. The incident was publicized throughout the international arena, creating a landmark in the struggle against racial discrimination.
Page Eleven: Students Vow to Combat Racial Discrimination
This can be regarded as a major step in the development of the battle against the narrative of racial discrimination, by the students. This incident happened in the gathering of almost 50 students at the Jena Six dinner and discussion in El Centro Chicano. It is to be noted that the main theme of the occasion, "Modern-Day Lynching: A Look into the Horror," the first NAACP event of the year, featured a panel including English Prof. Michele Elam, the new director of African and African-American Studies, History Prof. Clayborne Carson and Political Science Prof. Emeritus Lucius Barker, who…[continue]
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