The area of interest in nursing informatics are nursing information, nursing data and nursing knowledge. The present state of knowledge related to these phenomena proposes four implications for the development of systems to assist nursing. First, research suggests that experience and knowledge is linked to the quality of nursing assessment, diagnosis or clinical inference, and planning of nursing care, and also that knowledge is task-specific Information technology can provide access to a variety of information resources, such as knowledge bases and decision support systems, to enhance the level of knowledge of the nurse decision-maker. Second, organized patient assessment forms with linkages to knowledge bases of diagnoses have the capability to improve the quality of the patient check up and the accuracy of the diagnosis. Third, studies on planning care have demonstrated the complexity of the task when a number of options are potentially appropriate Model-based decision support applications such as decision analysis and multi-attribute utility theory can help the clinicians and patients to analyze and compare the treatment alternatives in a systematic manner. Fourth, there is little support for proving the relationship between the process and results of clinical decision-making. Large databases built upon nursing data are needed to further examine this relationship.
Computer as nurse
Using computer as "Physician" for "nurse" has produced significantly more results. In light of this, the search terms "nurses and computers" and "nurses attitudes and computers" were used successfully. Future research may require appropriate search terms to produce the desired results. The research studies that cover multiple aspects of interest: attitudes and anxieties towards computers and computer use, factors related to usage of innovations, email, and use of handheld technology. These studies were representative of the literature, had predictive value about nurses and/or use of technology, with obvious implications for future study. (PDA CORTEX, 2000)
Current usage of computers
Nurses have been using technology for decades. From IV therapy in the post war years to the use of ICU in the mid-20 the century and to the current use of compact digital point of care devices nurses have become accustomed to and experienced in using technology in different areas. The mixture of healthcare and technology has created an industry that now drives both the cost and the standard of healthcare. Nurses are now using arterial lines and PA waveforms, and mastering microchip driven IV pumps and other important aspects of their work, but the documentation and communication have remained, as a rule, limited to pen and paper, and face-to-face or phone-to-phone talking.
Nurses and Email
An email study, by Bunting, Russell, & Gregory, (1998), declared email as a basic communication method between members of a research team. The authors were working on different data sets and research texts. They explored that use of email provided a medium for immediately exchanging ideas, in a way as if they were actually face-to-face. Their electronic "meetings" also included fax, telephone and some face-to-face meetings between the principal author and each member separately. Through electronic media, they were able to establish consensus, and felt that email made precious contribution to the process of writing and synthesizing the work of three different researchers. In addition to the benefits of overcoming communication hurdles described above, another benefit was cost control, e.g., decreased use of phone calls and use of snail mail (postage). Barriers highlighted included access to email by either reliability of Internet connections, physical reach to a computer, and reasonably priced Internet service providers. They also establish that use of email required minimum skills. As a medium for exchanging manuscripts or editing documents, email requires that users have friendly software applications that recognize and assist features such as, strikeout, marking text for changes and highlighting. The authors establish that in their experience of long distance research using email as the basic communication medium, that email provided them with "an unexpected bonus" (p. 132); allowing for reflection, creation of new ideas, and wider perspectives all around. Future use of the medium could be extended to the international level.
Personal digital assistants
Investigators at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada conducted study-using Palm computing technology. The purpose of the study was to implement this new technology in an ICU setting and study its impact on efficiency and physician competence. Participants included 24 medical staff, medical trainees, pharmacists, respiratory therapists, researchers and nurse educators. Using regular group focus meetings and findings on advantages and disadvantages, their overall results were positive. The study investigators, Stephen Lapinsky, MD and Tom Stewart, MD, established that handheld technology could revolutionize patient data management as well as access to medical reference materials
Online nurse's courses
Today nursing is trying to get creative solutions to increase the number of advanced practice nurses and overcome workforce shortages in specially U.S.. Such shortages could damage the U.S. health care system. In 2009, Ginsberg, Taylor, & Barr reported that policymakers are thinking over the use of nurse practitioners (NPs) in improving access to primary health care services due to the expected and actual shortages of primary care physicians. In 2010, Wexler acknowledged the paucity of primary care physicians and felt that nurse practitioners are part of the solution. One basic approach to attracting more adults to acquire a degree in advance practice nursing, is integrating technological applications that enhance educational mobility. For these and other reasons, more nurses are taking greater benefits of online courses. Online learning is decentralized, not limited by a physical location, and often asynchronous, which removes time and space barriers. In terms of student population, online programs allow nursing educators to be more creative and strengthen infrastructure and recruitment efforts, both regionally and nationally. Jeffries (2005, p. 3) said "To keep up with our changing society and the technological advances in nursing practice, nurse educators will have to be creative in developing new, innovative models of teaching."
PUCSON was among those schools at Purdue university calumet to design web-based courses. PUCSON started a high quality, cost-effective, dedicated online evidence-based nursing education program at the Master's Degree level for each of the advanced practice educational offerings by PUCSON. Moreover, PUCSON started an innovative online educational program that helps more nurses attain advanced practice education. The first class to complete
The new online three-year program graduated in August 2011.
Soft wares used in Nursing
1-Quantitive analysis of data
Programmes such as Minitab, SPSS, QSR N6, and NVIVO are used for data analysis.
2-Symptom checker database
WebMD is the software that provides answer to the symptoms told by the patient. This is online software.
Different types of databases have been created. One of the famous drug databases is of Australia that was created in 1987 in Australia. It provides references to books, videos, journal articles, conference papers, research reports and unpublished materials on health, social and economic aspects of alcohol and other drug use.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) tries to apply the best available evidence obtained from the scientific method to clinical decision making. It also tries to judge the strength of the evidence of risks and benefits of treatments (including lack of treatment) and diagnostic tests. This helps clinicians understand whether a treatment will be beneficial or not. Evidence quality can be judged based on the source type (from Meta analyses and systematic reviews of triple-blind randomized placebo-clinical trials with concealment of allocation and no attrition at the top end
Down to conventional wisdom at the bottom), as well as other factors including statistical validity, clinical relevance, currency, and peer-review acceptance. EBM journals provide information in this regard.
5-Dosing and Medical calculators
It contains drug specific dosing calculators and medical calculators. FOR example fixed concentration medicated infusions calculator (version 1.3, December 24, 2009). Enters the patient weight and click on the desired concentration will give you the detail of tables that associate infusion rates to dosing rates.
It describes the compatibility of drug and its solutions. For example Micromedex provides The IV Index; it gives answers within few seconds and help to make accurate, confident intravenous compatibitility decisions. It is a kind of decision support system.
It presents a point of care for Lab tests. For example, WHO provides laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen.
Other programs used in Nursing
The system is automatic, currently working in approximately 100 nursing areas including inpatient units, clinics and day units. Data is updated by clinic staff in each shift to show the care provided to patients. The workload information is maintained monthly and reports are generated to send to the Ministry as well as for analysis within the organization to assist unit/clinic budgeting and decision making.
Oncology patient information system
It is an electronic medication system for chemotherapy orders in the ambulatory oncology services of the Oncology and Blood Disorders at Princess Margaret Hospital for over 20 nurse-led chemotherapy treatment clinics and physician-led ambulatory assessment clinics. OPIS differs from conventional electronic medication systems as it offers medication order entry of chemotherapy orders with a specific…