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Significant findings were that the survey revealed that "participants in any type of extracurricular activity were significantly more likely than non-participants to exercise and consume nutritious foods, to like school and do homework, and to express positive attitudes about self, peers, teachers, and parents. Involved students were less likely to skip school, get into fights, vandalize property, smoke cigarettes or marijuana, binge drink, or have sexual intercourse. Students who participate in sports are less likely to suffer depression than non-participants. "
3. The Involvement Principle:
Reported in the Journal of Higher Education (1995) the work entitled "The Other Curriculum: Out-of-Class Experiences with Student Learning and Personal Development" sought to understand the relationship between leadership and socialization skills in relation to the personal development that seemingly takes place during extracurricular activities. According to the author of this work George D. Kuh, graduates believe that participation in student's organizations, part-time work as well as other extracurricular activities" are believed to prepare the student to better meeting the challenges faced after graduation in the socialization aspect of their work. A principle referred to in this study as the "Involvement Principle" was utilized. The involvement principal states that the more time and energy students expend in educationally purpose activities, the more they benefit. (Howard, 1986) There are give proposition contained within the "Involvement Principle" which are:
1. Involvement is the expenditure of psychological and physical energy in some kind of activity whether specific or highly general. (example of specific would be a bake sale to benefit the children's home; and highly general would be attendance at a concert or an evening in the local library)
2. Different students invest varying amounts of energy in different activities. That is, an elected student's government officer may devote many hours to related tasks over several semesters.
3. Involvement has quantitative and qualitative features with measures of involving inclusive of simple things such as the number of library uses, etc.
Finding of the study in the Senior- classmen outcomes reported in relation to extracurricular activities and interaction with their peers on this basis includes:
Self-awareness, autonomy, self-directedness, self-worth, reflective thought (including critical thinking ability to synthesize information and experiences) social competence, practical competence, knowledge acquisition, academic skills (including learning how to study, write, etc.) Aesthetic appreciation, vocational competence, sense of purpose in clarifying life goals, and an overall contribution to formation of principles, attitudes and beliefs. Kuh (1995)
4. School Culture Developed Through Extra-curriculum
In another study written by McNeal (1998) stated is that there is much existing research documenting the benefits that are gained by students from participation in extracurricular activities. (Camp, 1990; Eidsmore, 1064; Haensly, et al., 1986 as cited by McNeal, 1998) Further written is the fact that participation in high school extracurricular activities is viewed by some to be noncentral and nonessential elements of the education of an adolescent with these being the first targeted items when it is time for cuts in the budget. It is known however, the students who participate in extracurricular activities show positive outcomes that are inclusive of "increased academic achievement." Stated by McNeal (1998) is the fact that:
The extracurriculum also plays a key role in developing the school's culture. Schools generate an internal culture that revolves around the groups that students form. There is also extensive work linking the importance of activities to the value children learn through their active participation extracurricular activities are associated with a wealth of positive and negative outcomes. There is a clear distinction between the focus in athletics on competitiveness, aggression and the internalization of a hierarchical role structure and the focus in fine arts on behaviors such as poise and the application of classroom-based knowledge. McNeal (1998)
5. School Satisfaction and the Extracurricular Activities:
study performed and written by Gilman (2001) entitled "The Relationship Between Life Satisfaction, Social Interest, and Frequency of Extracurricular Activities Among Adolescent Students" and reported in the Journal of Educational Research was conducted with the objective of establishing the fact that satisfaction in school is associated with extracurricular activities and that social interest, which involves a "sense of belongingness was also associated with out-of-school activities. This study cites Rosen field (1992) who held that extracurricular activities promote 'self-mastery' and Huebner et al. (1995) who held that dissatisfaction with life is linked to positive outcomes in self-esteem. Findings in this study were that life satisfaction increased in the groups that participated in extracurricular activities resulting in an increased satisfaction in school.
6. Life Satisfaction, Social Interest and Frequency of Extracurricular Activities among Adolescents
The study entitled "The Relationship Between Life Satisfaction, Social Interest, and Frequency of Extracurricular Activities Among Adolescent Students" written by Rich Gilman and published in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence (2001) was conducted with the objective of determining the connection between life satisfaction, social interest and the frequency of extracurricular activities in adolescent students. The study was conducted involving 321 high school (Grade 9-12) adolescents in the administration of a multidimensional measure of life satisfaction by use of a scale that also addressed social interest. The students listed the number of activities which they were or had participated in during high school. Findings in the study were that:
Higher social interested was significantly related to higher levels of overall social satisfaction. Gilman (2001)
Significant race differences were noted.
Adolescents who participated in greater numbers of structure extracurricular activities reported higher school satisfaction.
The relationship between social interest and actual participation in extracurricular activities was negligible.
7. Specific Benefits in Learning in Extracurricular Activities:
According to the article "Music Enhances Learning" studies conducted on the effects on learning of classical music reported "increased I.Qs, accelerated learning, greater retention of material learned, lowered blood pressure and heart beat." According to the article there is a "band of white fibers" within the depth of the brain that is the connector between the right and left sides of the human brain or the corpus callosum. According to the article scientists have stated that upon hearing "quiet classical music" this part of the brain "increases in size" and "increases the communication between the two spheres of the brain, which in turn increases learning efficiency."
The writer of this article Marie Rackham, a teacher of music states in the article that it has been proven that classical music has an effect on plants therefore to believe it has an effect on humans is a logical....and now a scientific conclusion. In her review of research that has focused upon music in relation to the brain of a child and specifically in the pursuit of learning the author informs the reader of innovation and applied technologies in the research of the subject by citing Nelson & Bloom (1997) who both stated that present day technical and technological measurements surpass those used for such research at any time previous to this time in research history. Further the reviewer relates the fact that a favored testing ground is in the area of music's relationship to the brain in terms of the enhancement that music lends to the brain in learning. Further it is acknowledged that one might question the possibilities in benefits that are cross-curricular in nature.
An interesting question has been posed by many as to whether there exists any type of cross-curricular benefits. In the work entitled "Nature vs. Nurture," a section of the work "Music and the Brain in Childhood Development" states that according to experts, Greenough and Black (1992) there are "two processes of synaptic growth" the first being 'experience-expectant' and the second 'experience dependent'. In the first the "overproduction of synapses" Huttenlocher (1994) triggers the brain into hypermode environmental experiential learning, but very importantly stated is the fact that a "lack of experience" or indeed a non-stimulated part of the brain will for that lack through "elimination" rids itself of those unused synapses so one must lose it when not using the brain as has been stated so humorously for so long the source is assumed forgotten. Stated within the work are other results from negative brain stimulation occurring from abuse or neglect or other negative stimulants. However, that is another study. The fact is that music and the brain's special relationship has been the focus of many credible studies showing repeatedly that music does indeed increase the learning capacity of the brain and instead of losing those synapses the brain structures itself differently in a way that is of higher functioning and cognitive abilities. Within music is said to be the finest and highest of all forms of sacred geometry which is believed to be the scientific creator of all aspects the human life matrix field.
The author in this works cites Dawson et al. (1992) who is said to have studied the frontal lobe activity in a study of infants with findings that happy and…[continue]
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