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Wilson earned a doctorate degree in Johns Hopkins University, and became a professor of political science. Wilson experience and academic background influenced his thought. Wilson focused on peace and international cooperation, and envisaged a new world order based on the rule of law, formation of international organizations and acceptance of shared values. Wilson also advocated for the covenants of peace by reducing armaments among nations. 28.
The idealists thought led to the formation of League of Nations to bring about cooperation among states as well as guarantying peace and security of all countries.29. Between 1920s and 1930s, idealist doctrine dominated international relations and the idealist believe made Britain to be slow in re-arming itself in the face of German with the believe that the League of Nation would prevent the outbreak of Second World War . 30. While idealist doctrine reigned between 1920s and 1930s, idealistic thought was struggling to materialize with the outbreak of Second World War. 31. After the Second World War, idealists tried to strengthen the rule of law and spread idealism in world affairs. The effect of atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki that nearly eroded the civilization influenced the spread of idealistic though after the Second World War. To secure international peace and security, United Nations was formed in 1945. Followed by the formation of International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank. 32. Additionally, Universal Declaration of Human Rights was formed in 1948 making the idealistic stance to be more realistic in international affairs. Despite the effort of idealists in the promotion of international peace and security, power politics still dominated the international affairs between 1950s and 1980s. 33. During this period, there was an intense rivalry between USA and USSR and both countries displayed nuclear weapons to enhance their power influence in international politics. In the present day international political system, realists practice still dominates the international political practice.34.
PART 3: FINDINGS
The literature review has examined the idealism and realism with relation to the contemporary international political system. While realism believes that states should engage in power politics, however idealism focuses on the legal aspect of international relations and postulates the formation of international organization to enhance international order. Despite the argument of idealism, this study will use realism to illustrate the theoretical ideas in the literature reviews.
SECTION 2: CASE STUDY
What are the national security reasons for the U.S. involvement and political strategy in discouraging the implosion of a nuclear war with China?
Part 1 provides the historical overview of national security reasons for the U.S. involvement and political strategy in discouraging the implosion of a nuclear war with China.
PART 1-HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
In a contemporary international political system, national security threats have been the dominant features that influence the U.S. foreign policy since internal and external forces have always threatened American strategic military interests. 35. One of the great challenges facing American policy makers is the possibility of long-term collision between the United States and an emerging powerful state of China. Although U.S. have remained a dominant military leader since the collapse of former USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), however, the rise of recent China military power has been a great concern to the United States policy makers. 36. Since 2007, there has been a long-term military competition between the United States and China.37. Presently, China is growing much faster than the United States and China has been locked with the long-term military competition with the U.S. Presently, the economic engine of China is growing much faster than the economy of the United States, and there is anticipation that the changes in dynamic Chinese economy could overtake the U.S. economy between 2025 and 2035 making China to achieve parity with the United States.38. However, from the strategic perspective, China economic superiority is likely to metamorphose into military superiority leading to the military conflict between the United States and China.39. Taking the example of nuclear weapons, China continues to increase its pace of nuclear weapon development, and with the pace, China is developing its nuclear arsenal, it is likely that China will have parity with the U.S. with reference with weapons of mass destructions.40. When this situation occurs, the two states could remerge a potential confrontation. 41. History could be used to illustrate this example. When Germany overtook Britain in the early 20th century, Germany demonstrated its dominance by waging World War I and World War II. 42. Pehrson points out that China has started demonstrating its military power towards the United States. For example, China has intentionally encountered U.S. along the sea lines revealing the rising of China's geopolitical influence. The author further reveals that China is very ambitious to attain great power status, and the growing China military power pose potential risks to the United States.43. China defense expenditures continue to increase in the recent years, and China military expenditures ranks third globally apart from the United States and USSR military expenditures,44 and there is a possibility that China defense expenditure will rank second in the next decade.45.
Mearsheimer points out that China sudden increase in defense expenditure is an issue of great concern, and if it is possible to determine the China intention today, it will be impossible to determine the China intention in the future.46. Aggressive intention of a country always depends on a policymaker formulating the foreign policy of a country. Although, China uses words such as no first use of nuclear weapon to display its peaceful intention, however, China intention cannot be empirically verified. Robert on its own part reveals that it is very difficult to distinguish between China offensive and defensive position. Although, China nuclear weapon accumulation is increasing, however, China has not yet demonstrated an aggressive behavior. However, Beijing present peaceful posture towards the United States at present does not indicate that China will continue to demonstrate peaceful position towards the United States in the near future.47.
Glaser takes a different position by pointing out that China is increasing its nuclear weapons expenditure because China does not know the military action of the United States in the future. With present American military dominance, China is attempting to be pre-occupied militarily in case the U.S. becomes aggressive in the future. With reference to the American nuclear capability, the United States has spent huge amount on its nuclear arsenal designed to challenge all countries around the globe.48. Due to the American military huge assets, China cannot fold its hand and allow the United States to take offensive position without being preoccupied militarily. Typically, some of the American military assets are located at Asia-Pacific region, and much of this military capability could be launched at a very quick rate at any part of Asian region.49.
Although, Sino-American relations are improving in the last few years, however, circumstances changes. Past or present actions of a state are not necessary indicator of future action. There could be an emergence of a new leader who could be formulating an aggressive foreign policy. Since the end of the cold war, the United States has been engaged in 14 different wars revealing that the United States has been preoccupied in two wars at every three years.50. Apparently, Obama administration is contemplating engaging another war against Iran. Typically, the United States has unilaterally declared its responsibility to police the entire countries globally. With the United States aggressive behavior on the emerging states in the last few years, it is natural for China to be pre-occupied militarily in case the United States behaves aggressively towards China. Although, the United States has not made a move to threaten China, however, Beijing is foreseeing that the U.S. may become aggressive in the future.51.
With growing military tension between the United States and China and the recent increase in the Chinese nuclear arsenal, the study discusses national security problems threatening the United States that may make the United States to discourage the implosion of a nuclear war with China.
PART 2- ANSWER the RESEARCH QUESTION
Devastating effect of nuclear weapons and the impact that might cause on the U.S. territorial integrity has been a primary national security reason for the U.S. involvement in political strategy to discourage the implosion of a nuclear war with China. During the cold war, the primary security concern of the United States was former U.S.SR, and China did not pose security threat to the United States.52. However, in the contemporary international security environment, China has become a United States rival with the nuclear weapons development, and China nuclear weapons modernization continues to be a primary national security concern to the United States.53. Typically, China motivation behind recent nuclear modernization is not open to the outside world, and China recent modernization has become a focus of U.S. national interest. With China recent economic superiority, China has the greatest potential to complete with the United States militarily especially in the field of weapons of mass destruction.54. With the China military capabilities, over time, China could challenge the U.S.…[continue]
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