In addition, this article also emphasizes the use of the faculty scholars model. This model is dependent upon a distributive leadership framework which places the focus on leadership instead of individual leaders. identifies four key factors to be addressed: "building trust; redesigning jobs; changing organizational structures; and creating a learning culture" The authors further explain that in congruence with the distributive leadership framework there are certain principles of learning including "authentic contexts and tasks, multiple roles and perspectives, the collaborative construction of knowledge, coaching and scaffolding [by a mentor], and evaluation (Lefoe et al., 2007)."
According to a book entitled Turnaround for Higher Education Leadership, turning academic people into effective leaders is a serious task and challenge. However, when such leaders exist they can be a valuable to an institute of higher learning because they understood the learning environment that students need to succeed. In addition, they have the capacity as leaders to ensure that the environment is conducive to learning in and outside of the classroom. The book further explains that
"There is inadequate delineation of what leadership entails for those supporting teaching and learning in universities…the developmental needs of academic leaders should be regarded as a fundamental issue if universities are serious about improving their educational standards…universities need to invest in academic development to enable tailored support at specific strategic levels (Fullen & Scott, 2009)."
The authors explain the link between improving educational standards and effectual leadership. This correlation should be the basis of leadership in higher education. Institutions that fail to see this correlation will have difficulty finding the type of leadership needed to succeed in the future.
Adult participation will be a critical aspect of improving leadership and developing leaders that have the appropriate combination of training, ethical standards and drive. Adults including parents, community leaders, and administrators must make a concerted effort to make their concerns know as it pertains to the attributes that leaders in higher education should possess. Along with students these individuals are also stakeholders that are affected by the type of leadership that pervades institutions of higher learning. These individuals have the power and authority to demand that colleges and universities employ leaders that serve the needs of students in a manner that is reflective of the standards established by the community. The aforementioned adult stakeholders can play an instrumental role I ensuring that leaders have the appropriate training so that the experiences of students will assist them as the mature and enter the workforce.
The purpose of this discussion was to provide a literature review of the attributes of ideal leaders in higher education. The research indicates that a great deal of change has occurred in the realm of Higher education in recent years. These changes necessitate the presence of strong leaders who have the experience and the ethical standards needed to make the proper decisions. The literature indicates that the changes in higher education in recent years are due to advents in technology, increased globalization and increases in diversity. All of these factors have changed the dynamics of higher education and the type of leadership that is required. The research indicates that having strong ethical standards is one of the primary attributes that higher education leaders should posses. These ethical standards are necessary because students' lives and futures are at stake. Ethical decision making is of particular importance as it pertains to the admissions process.. Overall the literature review indicates that ideal leaders must have the capacity to bridge the gap between the academic world and providing the appropriate leadership for students.
Caldwell, C. Shapiro P.J., Gross S.J. (2007) Ethical Leadership in Higher Education Admission: Equality vs. Equity. Journal of College Admission. 195 p14-19
Davies J.; Hides M.T.; Casey S (2001).Leadership in Higher Education.
Total Quality Management, 12( 7-8), pp. 1025-1030
Fullan, M., Scott G.(2009) Turnaround Leadership for Higher Education. Wiley Publishing.
Lefoe, G.E. Smigiely H. Parrishz D. Enhancing higher education through leadership capacity development: Progressing the faculty scholars model. Retrieved January 31 from: http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1053&context=asdpapers
Marginson, S. (2006) Dynamics of national and global competition in higher education. Higher Education 52: 1 -- 39