Representative System of Government Has Motivated a Research Proposal

Excerpt from Research Proposal :

representative system of government has motivated a vital chain of discussions in the literature about police workers administration and representation of women and racial minorities. The serious questions in this study are: (a.) Does the under oath police force rationally mirror a cross section of the groups being monitored? And (b.) What aspects are measured in representation of women and minority police officers in law-enforcement agencies? Black and Hispanic depictions on police forces are strongly associated with its incidence in community populations. Regions differ in the quantity of female and minority illustrations, blacks being better characterized in southern police forces than in another place; women are better characterized in the northwest. Nevertheless, findings disclose that men, more often than not whites, maintain to hold unreasonably more sworn positions in the largest part of law-enforcement agencies. The data sets of female and minority representation also demonstrate the extent of female and minority recruitment by analyzing four major contributing factors: economic, organizational, demographic, and legal (Dunnette, et al. 2006).

Currently more than ever agencies are trying to recruit their ranks with a diverse officer corps that mirrors the populations they patrol. This comprises women and those from a multiplicity of racial and ethnic milieu as well as other minority clusters (Martin, 2009).

Quoting the Bureau of Justice Statistics, racial and ethnic minorities in state and government agencies comprised of 24% of full-time under oath recruits in 2003, up from 15% in 1988. Women represented 11.5% of officials in 2003 up from 7.9% in 1988. Despite the fact that the numbers are growing, the profession carries on seeking larger depictions of women and minorities in its positions, and a lot of agencies are aggressively and uncompromisingly recruiting these demographics. For a lot of agencies, for the most part those serving large migrant communities, the requirement for racial and ethnic minorities goes far beyond long-established groups (Martin, 2009).

Additionally, as agencies recruit officers who reflect their communities, they are also lengthening their characterizations of diversity. From this point-of-view, diversity can comprise faith, sexual orientation, age, family background or profession, and even districts or high school (Coate & Glenn, 2003).

Anticipated Problems

Equal opportunities and diversity guidelines in the U.S.A. are different in no less than one critical respect from those employed in Britain and other countries: positive discrimination is not against the law. Just what adds up to positive discrimination, also called confirmatory action or from time to time reverse favoritism, is in itself an enormous question (Ayres & Steven, 2008). For this paper, I take it to mean the observance of supporting a personage or a faction in some way with the intention of providing them a benefit which might rectify past wrongs or unfairness. Here it is imperative to reiterate a point made earlier: law enforcement in America is far more subject to express, and more multifaceted, political control. Good number police departments are components of the local-government system of their city. As equal-opportunity laws have been a focal point of U.S. political activity from the time of 1960s it is hardly astounding to find them being enthusiastically pursued at least for the duration of the 1970s (Bahrke & Bob, 2007). There is confirmation that in the 1980s 'the election and re-election of a traditionalist Republican president and the selection of an anti-affirmative action attorney general have produced the decrease of affirmative action enforcement pains on the part of the federal government' ( Warneret al. 1989: 565).On the other hand, the same authors go on to maintain that 'with the lessening of support for affirmative action programs at the national level, the significance of local-level officials is improved (Dunnette, et al. 2006) and to show, in a survey of police departments in 281 U.S. cities, that the existence of female political leaders in the civic management did make a positive improvement to the numbers of female police in the force ( 1989: 576). Such swells occurred 'only with a prescribed affirmative action arrangement (Bahrke & Bob, 2007).

In a research of 'Gender equality in the U.S.A., Kirpet al. ( 1986) show that American action on equality moved in the 1960s from a fear with gender-neutral progressions, for example the recruitment criteria declared above, towards results. 'The result-oriented outlook of affirmative action turned out to be official policy for the duration of the 1970s' (1986: 160). The most well-known case involved at this time was that of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) in 1973 which, in a consent declaration, had in six years to fill stuck connecting 50,000 and 100,000 jobs on a sex-preference foundation (Donohue & Steven, 2009).

(Dunnette, et al. April 2006) have given four causes why 'the realization of positive action is very prevalent in the U.S.'. These are, they recommend, the accessibility of the necessary statistics, the possible burden of tremendously high damages in discrimination cases; the authoritative arrangement of the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission in resolves and supervision out of court arrangements; the influence and motivation of the courts to make affirmative action orders. (Martin, 2009)

There was, then, throughout the 1960s and 1970s a political ambiance which supported affirmative action and legal instruments and cures which made their hunt possible and meaningful in the U.S.A.

Despite the fact that the police were to a certain extent less likely to be the object of such suits and were predominantly unwilling to pressures to take constructive action (Dunnette, et al. April 2006) there were large varieties of cases pressed against women and of minorities.

In the scrupulous case of police departments, the courts now and then have compulsory rather demanding enforcements to boost the number of female officers. In some cities (for instance Miami, Denver, Detroit and Buffalo) courts have planned special treatment of female applicants to raise the number of women in the police force. (Warner et al. 1989)

Whether on account of direct legal sanctions, as a consequence of authentic commitment, or as an astute move, substantial numbers of U.S. police agencies assumed equal-opportunities policies throughout the 1980s. In a survey performed in 1981 of fifteen agencies, Hochstedler found that affirmative action targets for women have a propensity to be even more hazily defined than those for minorities . . . In a good number agencies the importance of affirmative action is intended at racial minorities, not women, and most groups did not falter to admit that they were not burning up much effort to take on and select female employees. This inattentiveness . . . is mirrored in the dearth of hiring quotas for females: not a single organization had engaged such a policy. (Ayres & Steven, 2008) Nevertheless, by the end of the 1980s several departments had set up comprehensive policies to make sure equality and had engaged full-time and professional staff to endorse and hunt such policies. (Dunnette, et al. April 2006) established only one occasion of positive action for women, in encouragement in Detroit (1990: 26-7). Such policies are more usually utilized for the employment of black and other minority-group detectives. Adler reports the significant promise to equal opportunity in many U.S. agencies and, after setting out their specifics in some detail, wraps up by saying, it is undeniable that American police departments with a solid equal opportunities program have accomplished important progress for women, both in areas of their overall depiction and, to a lesser degree, in decision-making positions.' My own results (Donohue & Steven, 2009) propose that she and the equal employment prospect officers in some agencies are maybe over-optimistic and that, despite the alarming munitions store of weapons at their command, the results do not appear to be significantly different from those in other countries.

Additional Guidance

From arrest to sentencing to imprisonment to parole, America's justice system is trampled with the footprints of racism. At every stage of the criminal justice process, racial minorities are subject to disadvantages. Your darker color means that you are perceived to be more threatening and, therefore, are an easier target to stop and detain. Our courts of justice seem like alien terrain for most racial minorities. Usually, the judge and prosecutor are white, as are most members of the jury, as well as your attorney. The scales of justice, upon which your life depends, are predominately white. Only in imprisonment do you find similar faces of color (Martin, 2009).

Blacks' perception of the criminal justice system is very reflective of the mistrust felt by many racial minorities. A 1992 Gallup Poll, for instance, found that nearly one-third (31%) of blacks believed that recent criminal prosecutions brought against prominent, black public officials reflect a plot to drive African-American leaders from public life. 42 A 1995 Gallup Poll revealed that nearly two in three blacks (66%) accept the statement that the American justice system is biased against blacks. In that same poll, blacks also were much less likely than whites to believe the testimony of police officers, and clearly think that crimes involving white victims are prosecuted with more zeal than…

Sources Used in Document:

Works Cited

Ayres, Ian, and Steven Levitt. Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 2008, 43-77.

Bahrke, Mike, and Bob Hoffman. Identifying the Fitness Needs of Law Enforcement Officers. Working Paper, Fit Force, 2007.

Coate, Stephen, and Glenn Loury. Will Affirmative-Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes? American Economic Review, 2003, 1220-40.

Donohue, John J, and Steven D. Levitt. The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime. Working Paper, Stanford University Law School, August 2009.

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