Theory Behind Second Language Socialisation Essay

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24). The findings of this study challenge accepted notions concerning the efficacy of the teacher-initiated initiation -- response -- feedback (IRF) sequences that are delivered in whole group teacher-fronted environments.

Based on his findings, Baynham argues that "teacher and students are robustly claiming interactive space in classroom talk, bringing the outside into discussion. This data, drawn from narrative and classroom data in case studies of Adult ESOL classrooms, points to less docile more agentive and open-ended models of classroom discourse than have typically been evidenced in the literature" (2006, p. 24).

Lam (2004)

The researcher presents an analysis of discourse, interview, and observational data that suggest a mixed-code variety of English is adopted and developed among the focal youth and their peers around the globe to construct their relationships as bilingual speakers of English and other languages. This researcher emphasizes the need to study how people navigate across contexts of socialization in the locality of the nation-state and the virtual environments of the Internet to articulate new ways of using English.

This study used a multi-contextual approach to language socialization to examine the social and discursive practices in a Chinese/English bilingual chat room and how this Internet chat room provides an additional context of language socialization.

Schick (2010)

This study employed a language socialization approach in order to investigate how the modal verb want is being used in two middle school dance classes as a tool for socializing students into becoming what their teacher describes as "better people" as well as "better dancers." The results of this study support the theory that the use of mental state language in general, and the verb want in particular, plays an important role in making transparent the kinds of thought processes that are central to a number of socially valued competencies, including imitative, instructional and collaborative learning and the exercise of social, and thus also moral responsibility.

A central topic in the study of pragmatics is how language contributes to the socialization of culturally shared values, skills, and practices. Data collection and analysis includes ethnographic observation and the video recording, transcription, and linguistic and pragmatic analysis of how participants use want within the context of pivotal sequences of classroom interaction.

Peirce (1995)

In this seminal study, the researcher reports the results of her empirical observations in ESOL classrooms and presents a series of vignettes and insights concerning the manner in which language socialisation takes place and how it is used to forge relationships and a sense of community among second language learners.

The researcher also presents a series of objectives that can be applied in the ESOL classroom to take advantage of the second language socialisation process to facilitate acquisition and application in a variety of settings.

Matsumura (2001)

This study focused on identifying temporal changes that took place among a group of university-level Japanese students with respect to their sociocultural perceptions of social status during the year they studied abroad in Canada and the impact of the changes on their pragmatic use of English when offering advice. The results of this study showed that second-language learners who lived abroad in an English-speaking setting started lower in pragmatic performance compared to a group who did not study abroad, but subsequently surpassed them, indicating that living and studying in a target speech community was effective in developing pragmatic competence.

This study compared the development of 97 Japanese exchange students' pragmatic competence with that of 102 peers in Japan who did not undertake a year abroad.

Shin (2006)

The findings of this study showed that (a) the constructed interactional patterns and norms of the students' computer-mediated forum activities represented group dynamics among the participants, (b) the participants' roles in joint construction of the activities reflected their language socialization experiences, and (c) the activities provided a way for spousal participants to assume academic identities, while becoming a social space for academic gatherings. The researcher concludes that, "This study highlights the fluidity of computer-mediated communication language learning contexts; fluid contexts entail learners' agency in dialogic engagements with the contextual elements of the learning environment as language socialization processes" (2006, p. 68).

This study examined the manner in which context is configured in among a group of ESL students' language learning practices participating in computer-mediated communication (CMC) exchanges. The specific focus of the study concerned determining how a group of ESL students collectively constructed the context of their activities in the computer-mediated forum through interactional patterns and norms, and how configured affordances within this type of environment mediated their learning experiences.

Yim (2011)

Finally, this study was a comparison between the use of face-to-face vs. online delivery platforms for adult ESOL classes. The researcher provides some useful insights concerning the differences that should be taken into account by educators in these different settings. The results that emerged from this study showed that more significant differences exist between the two courses compared to those that exist between L1 and L2 status; however, both courses seemed to be equally effective in creating a high level of academic discourse, but the two different approaches varied significantly with respect to language registration, attitudes, exercise of agency, and the range of participant roles.

This study concerns an investigation of second language (L2) students' class participation in English-language university courses in two different modes: face-to-face off-line and asynchronous online. The study specifically focused on:

1. What characteristics of academic online discourse were created in graduate courses;

2. How students reported their construction of online discourse and what problems they faced; and,

3. What participant roles L2 students exhibited in their academic online discourse.


The research showed that socialization describes the processes by which novices develop the competence that is needed to fully participate in the social life of a particular community or communities, including the day-to-day cultural practices such as language and literacy activities that take place in these settings, as well as the specific local preferences that characterize the language. Second language socialisation theory was also shown to be a useful framework in which to gain some valuable insights concerning how these processes operate through language as the primary symbolic medium of cultural reproduction and transformation.


Alexander, C., R. Edwards, and B. Temple (2007) 'Contesting cultural communities: Language,

ethnicity and citizenship in Britain'. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 33/5: 783

American Psychological Association. (2002) Publication Manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Baynham, M. (2006) 'Agency and contingency in the language learning of refugees and asylum seekers.' Linguistics and Education 17/1, 24-39.

Brown, K., Anderson, A.H., Bauer, L., Berns, M., Hirst, G. & Miller, J. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Boston: Elsevier.

Byram, M. (2000) Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. London:


Firth, A and Wagner, J (2007) 'Second/Foreign Language Learning as a Social Accomplishment:

Elaborations on a Reconceptualised SLA'. The Modern Foreign Language Journal, 91,

800 -- 819.

Garrett, P.B. & Baquedano-Lopez, P. (2002) 'Language Socialization: Reproduction and Continuity, Transformation and Change'. Annual Review of Anthropology. 31:339-61.

Gregg, K.R. (2006, October) 'Taking a social turn for the worse: the language socialization paradigm for second language acquisition.' Second Language Research, 22/4, 413-442.

Kramsch, C. (1993) Context and Culture in Language Teaching, Oxford: Oxford University


Lam, W.S. (2004) 'Second Language Socialization in a Bilingual Chat Room: Global and Local

Considerations.' Language, Learning & Technology, 8/3, 44-46.

Matsumura, S. (2001, December) 'Learning the Rules for Offering Advice: A Quantitative

Approach to Second Language Socialization.' Language Learning, 51/4, 635-670.

Peirce B.N. (1995) 'Social Identity, Investment and Language Learning' TESOL Quarterly, 29,


Schecter, S.R & Bayley, R. (2004) 'Language socialization in theory and practice'. International

Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education. 17:5, 605-625.

Schick, L. (2010, June). 'Want and the language socialization of multiple competencies in middle school dance…[continue]

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