English as a Second Language Student Success in a Mainstream Classroom Setting
According to Kalaian & Freeman (1994), confidence is one of the key elements required to teach children. Instructors therefore need educational support to ensure that they can teach children with who's second language is English in an appropriate manner. According to the results of the research conducted by Center and Ward (1997), they discovered that the attitude of teachers toward inclusion reflected a lack of confidence in their ability to teach properly and in the level of support provided to them by the educational institution.
Inclusion can often been linked with the concept of mainstreaming in the educational field. It is the act of teaching handicapped and non-handicapped children together in the same classroom. It has been of interest in the field of Education ever since the late 1960s. Research had earlier revealed that special-education children were able to learn better when they were enrolled in general classrooms as opposed to special classes. There were also allegations that racial discrimination and prejudices were associated with children enrolled special-education schools (Gloeckler, 2002).
Certain elements have also been identified as having a significant influence on the attitude of teachers towards children from different cultures (Nieto, 2010). These elements include the intention or lack of intention to change their current ways of doing things, the existence of collaborative processes and training support (Richardson, 1998). May and Kundert (1996) emphasized that inadequate training can be a major problem for teachers when dealing with students who's second language is English. According to Chester and Beaudin (1996), a number of factors often influence the relationship between teachers and students whom are not as familiar with the English language. These factors include mentoring, appraisal processes for new staff teachers, individual strengths of the teacher, and the resources available to guide them when teaching kids with special needs.
Gloeckler (2002) argues that mainstreaming is more beneficial because it helps to prepare children whose second language is English for the social life that they'll be faced with after school, instead of being isolated in different education centers where they would not have the chance to meet other children and enhance their learning experience in the language. Such an arrangement would also help other students without this disadvantage to gain some insight into the difficulties faced by students from different cultural backgrounds.
Mainstreaming: Proponents of this maintain that a student must "earn" the chance to be included in regular classrooms. It is a type of selective placement of students whose second language is English as well as special-education kids in regular classrooms. While inclusion is about bring all the resources needed to support each individual child to meet the child in the classroom, full inclusion implies that every student, regardless of their language differences or handicapped situation should be placed in regular environments on a full time basis.
Mainstreaming and inclusion are also different from one another in this respect: Mainstreaming recommends that a child whose second language is English first spend a considerable amount of time in a different environment before earning their way into regular classrooms while those in support of inclusion recommend that the child should first be kept in the regular classroom and be removed from their only when the facilities provided are inadequate to support the child (Stout, 2001).
Inclusion is not only an educational right for children with special needs or children whose second language is English; it is also a human right that all children should have access to, whether or not they have need different teaching methods to be fully facilitated in a classroom. Even though the term inclusion is erroneously assumed to refer to only children with disabilities or special needs, it actually encompasses broader elements; any child that is at risk of being alienated for reasons of race, gender, sex and any other factor that can contribute to exclusion will benefit immensely from the practice of inclusion.
Inclusion has been a subject of diverse interest within the educational field for decades. Numerous academic literatures have debated on the concept of inclusion, offering rich insight into the practice of inclusion in a child's education.
There's a need to foster and nurture an inclusive mind set in the minds of educational centers so that the rights of children are equal and balanced, leading to a balanced and egalitarian society that is proud of its egalitarian ideals and values that promote fairness (Soodak & Podell, 1996). Despite the demonstrated benefits of inclusive education and the mandates that have been passed by law to ensure its adoption, some schools are still lacking in adjusting their environments and providing support for teachers to implement inclusive education in their practices.
There are two major modes of inclusion that can take place in classrooms. These include the push in model and the full inclusion model (Soodak & Podell, 1996). With the Push in model, the teacher enters the classroom and provides tutoring and instructions that will support the children, the teacher comes with his own materials and provides instructions and materials to the children to support their learning. The teacher helps the children considerably during the classroom sessions. For example, the teacher can read to the children at certain points and help them with mathematical equations and any other academic challenges the child faces during the sessions. The push-in teacher may also help the general teacher in the differentiation of instructions to suit children with different needs.
Differentiation is a critical technique usually employed in inclusive settings to assist children with who need special attention in the classroom when it comes to language differences and help them improve their performance within classrooms (Soodak & Podell, 1996). It is a method that involves providing a wide range of activities for children of varying skills and abilities which allow them to learn in the way that is most suitable to them. The participation of the children whose second language is English may be full or partial, depending on the manner in which they are most able to learn. In order to achieve the most benefits from inclusion, it is extremely important for English as a second language (ESL) tutors and general education teachers to cooperate fully and work hand-in hand so that the benefits of the inclusion can be obtained early enough and have a positive impact on the education of as many language diverse students as possible (Nieto, 2010; Soodak & Podell, 1996).
The full inclusion model, on the other hand, involves the introduction of a special ESL teacher within the classroom as a full partner . The resources, materials and learning tools needed to support the language diverse learners are available and installed in the classrooms to facilitate their effective use. Training facilities and support programs should however be designed so that teachers can learn the benefits of inclusion, see them in action and be able to apply the inclusive techniques to their individual classrooms.
Inclusion does not cover only children whose second language is English or a child with special education needs. It is a universal right of every human being, irrespective of their gender, sex, race, disability, medical needs and any other condition that affects their ability to be completely integrated into society (Nieto, 2010). It focuses on giving people equal access to education and other opportunities that are available for them to make use of in their communities. It stands clearly against discrimination and can help children and adults alike improve their confidence and lifestyle by enforcing an early and optimal integration into the educational system as well as the community (Devon County Council, N.d).
Educational inclusion, a common term in education is described by the Devon County Council as the right that children and their families have…
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