( Enderson) Nathanson and Cantor (2000) concur with this assessment and also make the important point that "…the negative consequences of violence to victims are seldom shown on television" (Nathanson & Cantor, 2000, p. 125) This study refers to the way that older cartoons tended to diminish the consequences and results of extreme violence. "Many children's programs-especially the so-called classic cartoons (e.g., "Bugs Bunny," "Woody Woodpecker")-present violence in a humorous fashion that minimizes the pain and suffering of victims" (Nathanson & Cantor, 2000, p. 125). Children therefore 'learn' that violence is funny and has little actual effect on the victims (Nathanson & Cantor, 2000, p. 125). In term of older cartoons, one has only to refer to the original Disney cartoons where obvious social and racial stereotypes were presented, such as the Black maid or laborer. It can be argued that in these cartoons racial stereotypes were presented, which could engender prejudicial mindsets that may be translated into crimes.
The literature on crime and cartoons also emphasizes that one should take into about other variables and factors besides cartoons when evaluating the causes of criminal predispositions and behavior patterns. For example, factors such as violent television programs, violent video games, biological predisposition, and demographics all play a very important role in the later development of attitudes towards life and behavior. However, because cartoons form such an intrinsic part of the growing up experience for most young children, it follows that they cartoons have been isolated by criminologist and psychologists as being of particular importance in understanding the development of criminal tendencies.
One study with regard to the way that chide absorb and imbibe the content of violent cartoons suggests a direct link between violent cartoons and criminal behaviour patterns;
One longitudinal study proved that the amount of juvenile delinquency in adolescence was directly related to the amount of violence watched on television at the age of eight. Boys who watched violence on television were more likely to commit violent crimes. It isn't completely understood whether or not violent television shows cause people to become more aggressive but research has shown that television violence does increase aggression. Other studies show that children who watch violent television shows curse more, vandalize property, and are more aggressive in sports
The affect of violent cartoons on children who are disposed towards criminal tendencies as a result of mental problems or social background is another subject that has received special attention in the literature (Enderson).
3. Cartoons, racial hatred, prejudice and crime
As has already been discussed, cartoons from the 19th and early 20th centuries often did not take account of this link between crime and the graphic depictions of violence. However, there are also many other ways in which crimes and cartoons can be linked. One that has surfaced in recent years is the link between cartoons and racial, ethnic and social prejudice. Cartoons can often emphasise and bring to light certain ethnic or cultural differences and these depictions can lead to forms of illegal protest and violent crimes.
One of the ways that cartoons can act as means of propaganda can be seen in the cartoon depiction of the enemy during the First World War. Louis Raemaekers was the best-known propaganda cartoonist of World War I and produced a series of cartoons for the Amsterdam Telegraaf, depicting the Germans as godless and evil. The cartoon where we see a baby impaled on the spiked helmet a German is one of the most violent cartoons from that period ("Cartoons Go to War;," 2008, p. 69). Another example is the Martyred Nurse, where the German's are depicted as pigs.
While aggression during ...
More recently, the way which cartoons can incite prejudice and even potentially violent acts can be seen in the series of cartoons that depicted Muhammad, published in the Jyllands-Posten in 2005.
( Source: http://www.humanevents.com/images/islm_cartoon_7.jpg)
The above cartoon attempts to make a connection between Islam and terrorism. These images were seen as inflammatory in the extreme by the Islamic community and led to violence, social unrest and deaths in some areas. This event has sparked a heated debate about the role of satirical humor and cartoons in relation to ethnic and religious sensitivities. What is clear from this event is that cartoons have the power to create ethnic as well as religious tension which almost inevitable leads to criminal activities.
On the one hand cartoons are simply humorous fun and have on the surface little connection with crime and criminal activities. However, if one analyzes their impact and effect on young developing minds it becomes clear that many violent cartoons have the potential to create a mindset that can lead to criminal activities. This takes place primarily in situations where there is a disassociation between violent acts and their real-life consequences. This in turn is caused by the way that violence is depicted in cartoons. Children also tend to imitate cartoon characters and situations.
While older cartoons were generally more violent in nature, the modern animated cartoon ahs become more sophisticated and realistic, this means that while the content of violence has been in most cases reduced in modern cartoons their impact is increased by realistic 3D animation techniques -- which in turn can lead to the development of a mindset that is prone to criminal activities.
However, there are also other ways in which cartoons and crime can be linked. This applies to the adult world and refers to the way that modern cartons tend to satirize to poke fun at society, famous figures and cultural norms. The justification for this from of satire lies in the democratic right to critique and interrogate social and cultural beliefs. However, as was discussed above, cartoons can sometimes incite and inflame prejudice that may already exist in the society and this can lead to violent criminal behavior.
There are other ways in which those cartoons can be linked to crime. The increasingly sexual and pornographic nature of many cartoons can also be related to the way that children react to social norms and the law. If the child sees immoral and deviant acts as acceptable in the context of carton humor, this can result in a loss of respect or validity for these social norms; and this can be in some cases result in activities that are categorized as being criminal. The understanding of the link between crime and television viewing is a factor that relates to our comprehension of the impact of cartoons on society.
What is clear for the above discussion is that while cartoons are intended in the main to be innocuous and entertaining, there are many cartoons that depict violence and other forms of unacceptable behavior in a way they that can potentially exacerbate criminal behavior. These types of cartoons can be positively linked to influencing especially young people, and creating a mindset that is more susceptible to criminal patterns of behavior.
Bennett W. (1999) The Index of Leading Cultural Indicators. New York:
Cartoon. Retrieved June 9, 2009, from http://www.answers.com/topic/cartoon
Cartoons Go to War; World War I Horrors: Some of the Disturbing Propaganda Images Created by Cartoonist Louis Raemaekers. (2008, March 26). The Daily Mail (London, England), p. 69. Retrieved June 9, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026220259
Cartoons turn kids into yobs. Retrieved June 9, 2009, from http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/india-news/cartoons-turn-kids-into-yobs_100163279.html
Cartoon Violence. Retrieved June 9, 2009, from http://www.*****/essays/Cartoon-Violence/54886
Ferrell, J. (1999). Cultural Criminology. 395. Retrieved June 9, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001895370
How cartoons have changed children's behavior. Retrieved June 9, 2009, from htp://www.helium.com/items/499385-how-cartoons-have-changed-childrens-behavior
Lent J. (1994). Animation, Caricature, and Gag and Political Cartoons in the United States and Canada: An International Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Nathanson, A.I., & Cantor, J. (2000). Reducing the Aggression-Promoting Effect of Violent Cartoons by Increasing Children's Fictional Involvement with the Victim: A Study of Active Mediation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44(1), 125. Retrieved June 9, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001805899
Yeomans C. Muhammad cartoons: humour or hate? Retrieved June 9, 2009,
In term of older cartoons, one has only to refer to the original Disney cartoons where obvious social and racial stereotypes were presented, such as the Black maid or laborer. It can be argued that in these cartoons racial stereotypes were presented, which could engender prejudicial mindsets that may be translated into crimes.
Cartoon Analysis An Analysis of Tom Toles' Gay Rights Cartoon Tom Toles' most recent cartoon for the Washington Post shows a wedding cake with -- instead of the traditional bride and groom figurines -- a groom and a groom, smiling and holding hands. One of the figurines is playing on the Sinatra tune, "New York, New York," saying, "If we can make it here…" suggesting that gay marriage can make it anywhere.
Still another depicts him with a black patch over his eyes and he is carrying a machete. The fact that the cartoons mock the prophet is part of the reason for the anger in the Muslim world; but moreover, many Muslims despise Western values, Western politicians and the West in general (partly because of the West's support of Israel), and so Muslims are outraged that Western journalists would publish
Political cartoon recently released by Barsdale depicts a news anchor relaying a news story. The anchor is in front of a green screen and is wearing a pinstripe suit. The news anchor has a picture to the right of him of the state of Idaho turned onto its side. The news anchor is reporting that lawmakers banned the state of Idaho because it looks like a gun when placed on
An Analysis of a Political Cartoon in the Washington Post In the political cartoon depicted in Figure 1 below, Signe Wilkinson, editorial cartoonist for the Washington Post, uses a religiously inspired triptych design to show a sexual abuse victim, the predatory clergy member perpetrating the offense and the blind eye being turned toward the affair in a sequential fashion to emphasize the ongoing controversy rocking the Catholic Church. The purpose of
anxiety and happiness? Let us consider a joke on this topic, before turning to serious theoretical approaches toward the subject. In a "Peanuts" cartoon strip by Charles M. Schultz, the strip's resident know-it-all and amateur psychiatrist, Lucy van Pelt, is observing Charlie Brown's dog Snoopy hopping around in a giddy dance of happiness. "How can you be happy when you don't know what this year has in store for
Authors Donald Lively and Russell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms. "In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided to parody Falwell using a Campari Liqueur advertisement. The actual Campari ads portrayed interviews with various celebrities about their 'first times.' Although the advertisement actually focused on the first time that the celebrities had sampled Campari, the ads portrayed the double