Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Negative Argument for Debate
Government should NOT turn away from fossil fuels
Installing solar collectors on rooftops and insulating homes in America will not provide citizens and businesses with the energy needed to keep American strong. It is paramount that the U.S. continues to use fossil fuels. It's a no-brainer, friends: if we shut down fossil fuel electrical generating plants, we shut down American industry; we also shut down computers, schools, hospitals, factories. And, according to the World Energy Council (http://www.worldenergy.org), "cleaner fossil fuel systems mitigate and even neutralize the adverse consequences of the use of fossil fuels ... [and] the technology for these systems is advancing rapidly."
Nuclear Power, wind power and hydro power are not the ultimate answer
Nuclear power is extremely dangerous and nuclear plants can get out of control: The Chernobyl nuclear accident in Russia in 1986 caused an estimated 4,229 deaths in the Ukraine, and unknown number of cancers throughout Europe, according to Dr. Richard Smart, Department of Nuclear Medicine at St. George hospital in Kogarah Australia. World renowned radiation expert Dr. Helen Caldicott -- founder and president of Physicians for Social Responsibility -- explains that plutonium, a by-product of nuclear fission, is "so carcinogenic that hypothetically half a kilo even distributed could cause cancer in everyone on earth." Also, five kilos of plutonium in the hands of a terrorist can make a sizable nuclear weapon; currently, there over 1,200 tons of plutonium are stored around the world near nuclear plant sites. Additionally, reprocessing spent fuel "causes deadly radiation releases into the environment that are a threat to public health" (Suzuki, 2004), according to Greenpeace of Japan.
Windmill farms, like the one proposed for upstate New York 60 miles south of Rochester, are not the solution when they are built near communities. Putting up 53 windmills, each 400 feet high, "could dominate a landscape ... And drop property values 20 to 40%," according to journalist Jack Spula of the Rochester City News. The noise from the spinning of the huge blades "can induce headaches and other health affects" for people living near them. The blades also kill "large numbers of birds" and create "dangerous ice throws," Spula writes. Meanwhile, each windmill requires 2 acres of land, and also, requires access roads, transmission corridors, and they need to be networked together for effective delivery of electricity to the grid.
Hydro power is on the way out: Daniel Beard, head of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, "declared in 1994 that the era of large dam construction was over," according to energy expert Gavan McCormack, writing in Ecology and the World-System. Beard also said it would be "a serious mistake for any region of the world to use what we did on the Colorado and Columbia Rivers as examples to be duplicated." Yes, Japan and China and Vietnam are building humungous dam projects, but in Japan, for example, McCormack writes, "the costs of dam development over the last 40 years have greatly exceeded the benefits ... "
Global Warming Myths Exposed
Global warming is not going to get worse than it is (how bad it is now can be and should be seriously challenged anyway) because of a little drilling in a very tiny patch of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWAR).
Patrick J. Michaels, writing in The Washington Times, points out how absurd the March 22 press release from the Green Party was: "Green Party members noted that new drilling not only threatened local lands and wildlife in Alaska, but also risked accelerating the advance of catastrophic global warming," the release announced.
But Michaels, a Cato Institute fellow for senior environmental studies and author of the book, Meltdown: The Predictable Distortion of Global Warming by Scientists, Politicians and the Media, does the math on the topic. "Even if we grant all the globe's average annual warming of 0.017 degrees Centigrade (C) in the last 10 years was due to increasing carbon dioxide -- and that's quite a concession -- the numbers on ANWAR are a drop in the barrel" (Michaels, 2005), he points out.
To wit: The Energy Information Administration says that petroleum accounted for "about 42%" of the total human contribution of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere during the last ten years; that translates to oil-related warming of about 0.007 degree C. annually; the yearly global consumption of oil during that period was 26.6 billion barrels; the USGS says the oil in ANWAR that the Bush Administration wishes to pump out is 10.3 billion barrels (which is enough to supply the world for about 5 months or less), or roughly 40% of the annual total of petroleum burned.
With us so far? Now, burn all 10.3 billion barrels of ANWAR oil and get out your calculator: 40% of .007 degree Centimeter per year adds up to "right around .003 degree C, that's THREE THOUSANDTHS, not three or even three-tenths," says Michaels.
While we're on the subject of Global Warming, new research shows the earth was warming during the Middle Ages than it is right now. According to U.K. Telegraph and Environment & Climate News, a UK newsmagazine, though environmentalists have claimed that "temperatures are rising higher and faster than ever before ... such claims have now been sharply contradicted by the most comprehensive study yet of global temperature over the past 1,000 years" (Matthews, 2003). A review of more than "240 scientific studies" shows, according to Matthews' story, that "today's temperatures are neither the warmest over the past millennium, nor are they producing the most extreme weather."
Dr. Peter Gell, writing in Snowy River Mail (Gell, 2001), insists that 6,000 years ago, in the "Interglacial Maximum," the earth "was 6 degrees C. warmer than it is right now." Grapes, he writes, "were grown in Norway and Greenland was in fact lush and green ... swollen rivers ran through the Sahara Desert leaving wide and deep channels, now dry river beds called 'wadis.'"
Global warming is not occurring
The techniques that have been used to calculate atmospheric temperatures above the oceans of the world "have resulted in a 40% exaggeration of 'global warming' according to an international study by scientists," according to Insight on the News (Elvin, 2001).
"A disturbing pattern of exaggeration characterizes a great deal of scientific reporting by environmental researchers," according to Dr. Bjorn Lomborg, a professor in Denmark and former Greenpeace activist, quoted in Report/Newsmagazine (Byfield, 2002). Lomborg, who published the book, The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the State of the Real World, believes that the green movement offers "an alarmist misuse of statistics."
According to an article in the Enterprise of Salt Lake City (Chase, 1997), when Al Gore made claims 1994, that global warming would create a disaster for the world, his "errors were quickly exposed on ABC's 'Nightline' by Ted Koppel. The facts are: Warming is not occurring," Chase flatly states. In the late 1990s, there were rumors that oil companies were paying a "small band of skeptics" to pass misinformation about climate change, Chase writes. In fact, he continues, "the energy industry gives far more money to environmental groups than to their critics." Environmentalists received $1,238,450 from Chevron, Atlantic Richfield, Exxon, Mobil, Phillips and Texaco, Chase asserts.
Greenhouse Gases are NOT the cause for global warming
According to research conducted by the National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA) (http://www.ncpa.org/ba/ba230.html), "Scientists do not agree that humans discernibly influence global climate because the evidence supporting that theory is weak." In fact, the NCPA reports a Gallup poll determined that just 17% of members of the Meteorological Society and American Geophysical Society believe that the warming of the air and seas during the 20th Century resulted from "greenhouse gas emissions." That is 83% who DO NOT BELIEVE greenhouse gases are causing global warming. Also, NCPA published the data showing that "only 13% of scientists responding to a survey conducted by ... Greenpeace believe that catastrophic climate change" will result from continuing the use of fossil fuels as we are now.
Costly actions to reduce greenhouse gases "are not justified by the best available evidence," according to a letter signed by "more than 100 noted scientists, including the former president of the National Academy of Sciences" (published by NCPA).
Sea Levels are not rising as indicated by environmental "experts"
Yes, sea levels are rising around the planet, but not in any uniform fashion; and in fact, sea levels have risen "more than 300 feet over the last 18,000 years," and that is a natural phenomenon in between ice ages, expert research by NCPA indicates.
A spokesman for the American Conservative Union Foundation, Alan Caruba, writes ("Global Warming Myths") about the Conference Board, a corporate business think tank, has published a report citing the rise in sea levels. "Both the rate and the amount of sea level rises are, as with most other climate change patterns," the report concludes, "subject to uncertainty." Caruba says, "in 2001 Cecile Cabanes calculated sea-level rise for the last half-century around the world and concluded that in Bangladesh,…[continue]
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