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Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly achieved by isolating what was practiced from its related theme, which was believed by many researchers to be the only efficient way that a sense of unbiased logic could be developed in an individual. One of the important things to note is that the application of the "movements" theory also made the examination unbiased because of its dependence on the overviews borrowed from different schools of thought. However, the philosophical theories that were based on pragmatism, reconstruction, existentialism and pure philosophical analysis were not successful at allowing the individual to form an impersonal conclusion (Greene, 2000).
Educational Theory and Philosophy during 1970's
The 1970s was a significant decade for both the philosophical and educational spheres as it saw some of the most crucial social and philosophical reforms in the history of the U.S. First, it was near the beginning of the decade that man landed on the moon after numerous tries. The Vietnam clash and the extensive instability and disorder of the university going youngsters dampened the beginning years of the decade. It was in the beginning of this decade that numerous smaller movement groups gained popularity and momentum especially the "Women's Movement" and the "Gay Liberation Movement." Also, the "American Indian Movement" took up a much more aggressive approach by the early 1970s. Outside the U.S. events that influenced the dealings of the U.S. were events like the Watergate break-in, the demise of President Nixon, the infamous slaughter of My Lai which led to the tribunal of Lt. William Called. The U.S. participation in the revolution in Chile had helped in the establishment of the horrifying Pinochet autocracy (Phillips, 2000).
As the mid 1970s approached we saw the very first emergence of the nuclear threat as well as the very first oil related crisis take place as well as the re-enforcement of the death penalty sentence. The Yom Kippur war was also a significant event of the mid 1970s. The social issues of divorce, crime, and use of drugs were on an escalating path and by the end of the decade inflation and economic strain were the main causes of concern for the U.S. government. Many researchers believe that it was the inflation and the economic state at the end of this decade that led to the selection of Ronald Regan and the consequential events on the 1980s. Another important aspect of this decade was the amount of education theories that came to surface but were dampened by the immense panorama created by events mentioned above (Phillips, 2000).
The most standout fact of the essays published in this decade was the amount of diversity that the writers had when applying the philosophical theories within the education context. There were many ideas that sprung from various angles that formed the educational theories during the early 1970s. By the mid-1970s the outlook and method toward forming the educational theories was reformed as it displayed a more analytical process of thought and an equal representation of traditions in the published papers. The important thing to note here was that even though the different groups of theorists were given equal representation, there was still very little contact in between the groups; the contact and debates that took place were more within the groups themselves instead on amongst the different groups (Phillips, 2000).
It was in this decade that we saw some of the most important incorporations of the philosophical notions within the sphere of the educational theories. In a nutshell this decade saw the continuance of the demand of rigorous hard-work and use of common-sense intelligence. The "Lau Decision" from the Supreme Court allowed the educational system to incorporate the teaching of more than one language at the schools and universities. Bruner's approach towards solving the curriculum crisis and educational structure was mainly adopted or promoted when discussing these two facets; there was a rising interest in the tactics used to assess the educational and social courses adopted in schools; there was also an escalated interest in the theory of oral growth that was presented by Kohlberg; numerous educational theorists were trying to come up with the most just way of admission while also tackling the aims of intended activities, disciplinary issues, as well as, education at the master level; the callouts for the initial level of education for everyone, even the poor, had become a widespread phenomenon; there was immense interest in the data-application designs of human awareness and intelligence; and, the inheritance and national discrimination of IQ amongst students was still a pressing concern for research (Phillips, 2000).
Educational Theory and Philosophy during 1980's
The decade of 1980s was mainly ruled by some significant authors whose ideas were then supported by other writers. Every educational concept or problem, like the financial distribution or education-based administration, was approached in a way that consequently resulted in the heavy incorporation of philosophical theories. One of the most significant writers and theorists of this decade was Page who brought forth a critical, feminist, and postmodern outlook to the numerous educational journals. He was also monumental in providing a strong foundation for numerous other ideas and writers. One good example of the innovative works by page is the "Special Issue on Philosophy and School Finance" that he published in 1984. This published work focused on what was needed to be said between the philosophers and socialists but was not being said due to communicational barriers. Writers like Strike and David Monk focused on bridging the gaps between the theoretical frameworks and their practical execution by addressing the financial issues and distributions (Strike and Monk, 1984).
The article "Fiscal Justice and Judicial Sovereignty" published by Strike was adeptly analyzed by Stephen Arons who was a lawyer and lecturer of law at the time (Arons, 1984). One of the main focuses of numerous researchers in the 1980s was the use of school vouchers and their relation/contribution to the accomplishment of the educational goals. The policy examiners, Arthur Wise and Linda Darling-Hammond were most influential in their analysis of this phenomenon (Wise and Darling-Hammond, 1984). Bull in one of his writing used his logic and intelligence to point out the significance of the philosophical theories in the educational sphere by highlighting the methods of official lawmaking within a broadminded democratic system. Numerous researchers agreed with this approach and concluded that it was, in fact, up to the educational theorists and philosophers to acknowledge the state of the society and provide the lawmakers with that info before they make the laws (Kohli, 2000).
The training of teachers was another concept that was brought down from the previous decades. The decade 1980s saw the adept application and promotion of this phenomenon. Some examples of the essays published in the mid-1980s are the "The Training of Teachers, the Study of Education, and the Liberal Disciplines" by Bruce Kimball, the inquisitive article titled "Is Answering Questions Teaching?" By Robert Ennis and "Teaching: Response and Responsibility" by Shirley Pendlebury (Kimball, 1986; Ennis, 1986; Pendlebury, 1986). All the articles published got back retorts from other philosophers; so Page's emphasis on effective communication and exchange of ideas remained an ongoing process and resulted in mutual growth and understanding (Kohli, 2000).
Gary Fenstermacher, who is a renowned educational researcher, condensed his dialogue in a conference while focusing on the coaching of teachers and the enhancement of their practical knowledge. This dialogue was published in 1987 and received a huge amount of support and praise. After this, numerous researchers and theorists were invited and supported to comment on Fenstermacher's "... work on the connections between educational research and practice, particularly the relationships between a body of research known as 'research on teaching' and actual teaching practices" (Fenstermacher, 1987). In fact, the impact of his dialogue was such that there was another conference held subsequently that covered just the reaction of the educational society of theorists on Fenstermacher's opinion. The conference was attended by several different authors that integrated the researches emerging from the spheres of reformed structure of prospectus, tutor instruction, academic study, as well…[continue]
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