Analyzing Psychology Dual Diagnosis Research Paper

Length: 10 pages Sources: 10 Subject: Psychology Type: Research Paper Paper: #51003129 Related Topics: Neuropsychology, Abnormal Psychology, Positive And Negative Reinforcement, Dependent Personality Disorder
Excerpt from Research Paper :

Psychology Dual Diagnosis: Substance Related Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders

The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of the terms. The DSM-V is a manual that is made use of by professionals in the field of medicine and mental health. They specifically refer to this manual when they are diagnosing disorders related to the mental health of a patient and the use of substances. Through the use of this manual, there is a standard way of diagnosing disorders (Rockville, 2005). Substance use disorders are often found to exist with co-occurring disorders. This report highlights the assessment and treatment of substance related disorders and the co-morbid disorders.

Introduction

The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of the terms. The DSM-V is a manual that is made use of by professionals in the field of medicine and mental health. They specifically refer to this manual when they are diagnosing disorders related to the mental health of a patient and the use of substances. Through the use of this manual, there is a standard way of diagnosing disorders (Rockville, 2005).

Discussion

The DSM-V progresses from the DSM-IV in that it has disorders on a range, replacing the separate categories of disorders that were previously seen. The range moves from what is mild to what is acute. It further classifies the use of specific substances into specific disorders with the exclusion of caffeine. Thus, the disorders are specific under the DSM-V. Other changes include the requirement that there be identified at least two symptoms for a disorder to be diagnosed as mild. These two symptoms must be from the list of 11 symptoms that the DSM-V provides. This is a change from the requirement in the DSM-IV, which required just one symptom to be present in order to come up with a mild disorder diagnosis. The DSM-V has included the craving for drugs as a symptom, while it has removed some, which do not cut across the globe, such as a person having negative encounters with law enforcement (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

The professionals who are working with substance abuse patients must be aware of the co-occurrence of mental disorders and disorders of substance use or those which present their symptoms, for example, symptoms of withdrawal or persons being inebriated. This material has an objective of helping counselors to be more familiar with the terms in use with regard to mental disorders and how they can be of help when they encounter patients who are exhibiting these symptoms of disorders (Rockville, 2015).

The counselors who deal with addiction are the ones who are most likely to observe personality disorders as is the case with quadrant III settings for the treatment of substance abuse. The people with personality disorders exhibit traits that are present for the long-term in their life. These traits and symptoms are not temporary, and thus, result in the person being dysfunctional socially and occupationally. They demonstrate symptoms through their thoughts, emotions, interactions, and how well they are able to control their impulses. Counselors can see these symptoms when they observe the perception that the person has of the world, how they think of themselves and others, how intense their emotions are, how they fit a particular situation and also the kind of relationships that the person has (Rockville, 2005). Flynn et al. (1997) note that there is great co-occurrence of substance abuse and anti-social personality disorders. Treatment for substance abuse has been seen to be given more to those who are suffering from this personality disorder.

Psychotic disorders have symptoms, which are mainly about the problems with cognition. Some of the thought problems that are seen in this case include those of a person experiencing hallucinations and delusions. These delusions affect the person's thoughts concerning something, even though they are based on false premises. They can hinder a person's functionality. A person with delusions may see himself/herself as being in danger from others or even see himself as someone else. In hallucinations, the person may perceive something that is not there, or hear non-existent sounds, smell what others cannot smell and even feel things that are not present. These psychotic disorders are more frequent in mental health situations and when they are put together with the abuse of substances, this abuse is carried to extensive levels. They make up the population of the mentally ill that is severe and extensive. Gustafson (1999), states that this population has more and more been seen in the treatment services of substance abuse programs. There are substances such as early childhood. There are periods of growth when the risk for substance abuse is accentuated. One of these periods is adolescence, when there is a lot of pressure placed on a person by their peers, coupled with the discovery of self and the feeling of being able to do anything. The psychopathology of a child is greatly affected by their parents being substance abusers as well as their peers being deviants (Moss, et al., 2002). Where a person has a problem with substance abuse, it is likely that their children who are raised in this circumstance will also begin to abuse substances, and when there is the addition of peer pressure, the child is more likely to develop a problem of substance abuse.

Hansell & Demour (2005), note that it is more likely for men to abuse substances than women. Some of the research that has been done on this has been directed at the genetic contribution to this problem. One of the findings has been that the problem of alcoholism has been seen to occur in generations of the same family. 25% of the male children of alcoholic parents became alcoholics. In another study by Bierut, et al. (1998), the focus was on how substances like cocaine and marijuana are diffused in families. From these studies, it was noted that the dependence on these substances as well as on alcohol was high in the siblings of those who were dependent on alcohol. These siblings were noted to be more likely to develop dependence on cocaine, marijuana and alcohol. Thus, the dependence on these substances is habitual and there are factors that are transmitted in families that are common and specific in addictions. The client who has his father as a drug addict may be more predisposed to develop this addiction because of his genes.

It has been noted that a person will be more likely to develop the problem of substance abuse as a result of repeated exposure to circumstances that induce stress. Stress may have a great impact on the person using a substance. It is actually a fact that stress has led to the initial intake of alcohol as well as the continued use of it, leading to addiction. It has also contributed to the relapse of the patient to substances after there has been a time of abstinence.

There is also a relationship between the abuse of substances and specific social elements. This can be seen when the rates of abuse among males who are just starting out and are not employed, are higher than those of the rest of the population. This is the same case for the rates of abuse in occupations that bring in a lot of stress. The field of medicine, for example, has more drug abuse than any other. Thus, sociocultural factors also affect the abuse of substances. As reported by proponents of family risk factors, patterns are present in families that could lead to the abuse of drugs (Hansell and Demour, 2005). There could be patterns of co-dependence and even denying the existence of a problem, leading to addiction of the drug user.

A person can also be influenced to abuse substances by the environment he/she is in as well as the company they keep (Powell, 1973). This was the case with heroin users who were interviewed in a study. The respondents felt that their identity was tied to the practices of the…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Substance-related and addictive disorders. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/documents/substance%20use%20disorder%20fact%20sheet.pdf

Bierut, L., Dinwiddie, S., Begleiter, H., Crowe, R., Hesselbrock, V., Nurnberger, J.,. . ., & Reich, T. (1998). Familial transmission of substance dependence: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and habitual smoking: a report from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry. 55(11), 982-8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9819066

Brunette, M. F., Mueser, K. T., & Drake R. E. (2004). A review of research on residential programs for people with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev, 23,471-481.

Collins, R. L. Blane, H. T., & Leonard, K. A. (1999). In OttP. J., Tarter, R. E., Ammerman, R. T. Sourcebook on substance abuse: Etiology, epidemiology, assessment, and treatment. Boston: Allyn and bacon, pp.153-165.
Kalechstein, A & Gorp, W. G. (2007). Neuropsychology and substance use: State of the art and future directions. New York: Taylor & Francis. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.pk/books
Moss, H. B., Lynch, K., Hardie, T., & Baron, A. (2002). Family functioning and peer affiliation in children of fathers with antisocial personality disorder and substance dependence: associations with problem behaviors. American Journal of Psychiatry,159, 607-614. Retrieved from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/159/4/607
Rockville, M. D. (2005). Substance abuse and mental health services administration. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64197/
Meehan, W., O'Connor, L. E., Berry, J. W., Weiss, J., Morrison, A., & Acampora, A. (1996). Guilt, shame and depression in clients in recovery from addiction. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 28(2), 125-133. Retrieved from http://eparg.org/publications/guiltshamedepression.pdf


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